JON HAMMOND Instruments: Organ, Accordion, Piano, Guitar Attended: Berklee College of Music 1974 Languages: English, German *Jon is currently Host of daily CBS radio program HammondCast on KYOU & KYCY 1550 AM, 7 days a week at 4AM PST.

Wednesday, July 25, 2012

Jon Hammond Journal For Day July 26, 2012 Report

Jon Hammond Journal For Day July 26, 2012 Report Anaheim California -- Jason Lee tallest hair Carvin Rep and Jon Hammond at Winter NAMM Show http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RvjqYJ6F0WU JFK -- Jon Hammond traveling musician pack with Briggs and Riley baggage - Jon Hammond says: "Briggs & Riley Travelware Flies and also will Float – thankfully as I found out!" http://hammondcast.wordpress.com/2011/11/09/jon-hammond-says-briggs-riley-travelware-flies-and-also-will-float-thankfully-as-i-found-out/ Jon Hammond: “Since 1981 I have been flying with a Zero Halliburton Pilot case and a Kart-A-Bag by Remin baggage cart, ever since my first flight aboard Air France Concorde to Paris CDG from JFK. I never thought I would change this combo until recently, now with extra restrictions on carry on luggage, it’s hard to get the Kart-A-Bag unit on in addition to my bags, so I went for the finest in rolling carry on baggage, Briggs & Riley with the “Simple As That” Lifetime Warranty.” “It’s a good thing I did, because recently while getting on a friend’s yacht in Sausalito CA with music and video equipment for the annual Fleet Week Blue Angels show, our Briggs & Riley baggage loaded with expensive video equipment and microphones fell in to the water at dockside to my horror…but miracle of miracles, the Briggs Riley baggage floated! All the equipment was bone dry when we fished it out of the waters of San Francisco Bay with the boat hook. What a great feature!” You can say I’m a happy camper, because if it had been my well traveled Halliburton aluminum case, it likely would have sank to the bottom with all my gear and irreplaceable camera masters inside, plus fine Superlux and Sennheiser microphones..no doubt about it. Jon Hammond recommends Briggs & Riley Travelware for the professional traveler, with The only warranty that covers it all…B&R says “If your Briggs & Riley bag is ever broken or damaged, even if it was caused by an airline, we will repair it free of charge. Simple as that!” “And it floats!” Try the new extra rugged Baseline models. http://www.briggs-riley.com/category/group.aspx?col=baseline Jon Hammond Band My new travel profile: with Hammond XK-1 organ in custom-built flight case on Super 600 wheels with various Briggs and Riley baggage - http://www.jonhammondband.com/ Frankfurt Germany -- Kenny and Benny...Bing and Bong! Hessischer Rundfunk Kenny and Benny Meet Bing and Bong Jon Hammond Reporting From Frankfurt http://hammondcast.wordpress.com/2011/09/20/hessischer-rundfunk-kenny-and-benny-meet-bing-and-bong-jon-hammond-reporting-from-frankfurt/ Historic hr-Bigband Frankfurt Radio Bigband Concert and Broadcast special guests guitarist Kenny Burrell and saxophonist composer Benny Golson aka The Kenny and Benny Show, because at the time the hr-Bigband had Kurt Bong and Herbert Bings, this was the historic night that as Jon Hammond says: “The Kenny and Benny met Bing and Bong !” Photo of broadcast: *photo by Jon Hammond — at Hessischer Rundfunk. Setzingen-Ulm Germany -- This is where it all started folks - Hammond Germany / Deutsche Hammond, the workshop of main man Professor Klaus Maier founder of Hammond Germany, who I had the good fortune to meet him and his very talented son Michael at my very first Musikmesse Frankfurt in year 1987 - they have built one of the most important Hammond Organ museums in the world and have kept the tradition going - Michael is regarded in Japan at Suzuki Headquarters as "prince and the future of Hammond" and I concur with them! - Jon Hammond here with Michael Falkenstein at the birthplace of Hammond in Germany http://hammond.de/ Worldwide HammondCast http://www.HammondCast.com/ Daly City California -- iPad in Daly City - Little Boxes - this is the place where my old friend Malvina Reynolds got her inspiration to write the smash hit song "Little Boxes" - Jon Hammond I shot that while driving by last night.. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malvina_Reynolds "Reynolds' most famous song, "Little Boxes" (made famous by Pete Seeger), has enjoyed renewed popularity by being featured in Showtime's TV series Weeds. "Little Boxes" was inspired visually by the houses of Daly City, California. Nancy Reynolds Schimmel, daughter of Malvina Reynolds, explained: "My mother and father were driving South from San Francisco through Daly City when my mom got the idea for the song. She asked my dad to take the wheel, and she wrote it on the way to the gathering in La Honda where she was going to sing for the Friends Committee on Legislation. When Time Magazine (I think, maybe Newsweek) wanted a photo of her pointing to the very place, she couldn't find those houses because so many more had been built around them that the hillsides were totally covered." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Boxes "Little Boxes" is a song written by Malvina Reynolds in 1962, which became a hit for her friend Pete Seeger in 1963. The song is a political satire about the development of suburbia and associated conformist middle-class attitudes. It refers to suburban tract housing as "little boxes" of different colors "all made out of ticky-tacky", and which "all look just the same." "Ticky-tacky" is a reference to the shoddy material used in the construction of housing of that time. Reynolds was a folk singer-songwriter and political activist in the 1960s. Nancy Reynolds, her daughter, explained that her mother came up with the song when she saw the housing developments around Daly City, California built in the post-war era by Henry Doelger, particularly the neighborhood of Westlake. My mother and father were driving South from San Francisco through Daly City when my mom got the idea for the song. She asked my dad to take the wheel, and she wrote it on the way to the gathering in La Honda where she was going to sing for the Friends Committee on Legislation. When Time magazine (I think, maybe Newsweek) wanted a photo of her pointing to the very place, she couldn’t find those houses because so many more had been built around them that the hillsides were totally covered.[2] Reynolds' version first appeared on her 1967 Columbia Records album Malvina Reynolds Sings the Truth,[3] and can also be found on the Smithsonian Folkways Records 2000 CD re-issue of Ear To The Ground, however Pete Seeger's rendition of the song is known internationally, and reached number 70 in the Billboard Hot 100. Seeger was a friend of Reynolds, also a political activist, and like many others in the 1960s he used folk songs as a medium for protest. [edit]Reception The profundity of the satire is attested by a university professor of the time who said that, "I've been lecturing my classes about middle-class conformity for a whole semester. Here's a song that says it all in 1½ minutes."[4] The term "ticky-tacky" became a catchphrase during the 1960s, attesting to the song's popularity.[4] However, according to Christopher Hitchens, satirist Tom Lehrer described "Little Boxes" as "the most sanctimonious song ever written".[5] [edit]Covers The song has been recorded by a number of musicians, including Death Cab For Cutie, Rise Against, Regina Spektor, The Shins, The Womenfolk and Walk off the Earth. Other musicians have arranged and translated the song to meet their styles. The lyrics have been reprinted with photographs of "Little Box" houses in environmental publications. The version of the song by The Womenfolk is the shortest single ever to chart on the Billboard Hot 100 at 1:03 minutes long.[citation needed] The Spanish songwriter Adolfo Celdrán wrote the first Spanish version of the song, called "Cajitas", which was published in 1969 and had several successive reissues. Another Spanish version of the song, "Las Casitas del Barrio Alto," was written by the Chilean songwriter Víctor Jara in 1971, depicting in a mocking way the over-Europeanized and bourgeois lifestyle of the residents of the "Barrio Alto" (high-class neighborhood) in Santiago de Chile. A French version with the title "Petites boîtes" was performed by Graeme Allwright and was later covered by Kate and Anna McGarrigle on their 2003 album La vache qui pleure. Other artists who have covered the song include Devendra Banhart, Chester Bennington of Linkin Park, Elvis Costello, Death Cab For Cutie, Tim DeLaughter of The Polyphonic Spree, Donovan, Skott Freedman, Engelbert Humperdinck, The Individuals, Angelique Kidjo, Rilo Kiley, Kinky, Jenny Lewis, Man Man, Randy Newman, Ozomatli, Phosphorescent, The Real Tuesday Weld, Rise Against, The Shins, Regina Spektor, The Submarines, Billy Bob Thornton, and The Decemberists, who expanded the song with several new verses. In 2012 a version by Adrienne Stiefel was released in the UK by iTunes.[6] [edit]In popular culture The song was performed on the NBC satirical television program That Was The Week That Was on April 13, 1964, sung by Nancy Ames and accompanied by a film montage by Guy Fraumeni and Lou Myers depicting tract housing and other related images. In the 1975 novel Ecotopia by Ernest Callenbach, describing a secessionist ecological utopia in the western United States, the protagonist (visiting the country as a US journalist) is informed that “cheaply built houses in newer districts” are scornfully referred to as “ticky-tacky boxes” by the population.[7] Russ Abbott took the music to the song and its general theme to satirize The Spinners, a contemporary popular folk group whose songs apparently "all sound the same", as a parody act "The Spanners" on his 1980s London Weekend Television Madhouse series. "Little Boxes" is the signature tune of BBC Radio 4 comedy series Robin and Wendy's Wet Weekends, sung by Kay Stonham in the character of "Wendy Mayfield" to a background of inept coaching by Simon Greenall as her husband "Robin". A 2006 book about Westlake, Little Boxes: The Architecture of a Classic Midcentury Suburb, is named for the song.[8] The song is sometimes used as the opening theme song for the Showtime television series Weeds. The first season used Reynolds's version as the theme song. The second, third, and eighth seasons used versions by nearly thirty different musicians, as well as the occasional Reynold's version. The song was not used regularly during seasons four through seven, it can occasionally be heard briefly. For a complete list of artists who have recorded this song for the show, see opening music of Weeds. The song is also used by the Italian journalist Gianluca Nicoletti as the opening song for his radio show Melog, on air daily on the Italian national network Radio 24 since January 9, 2006. This song is sung by both Keith Carradine (as "Elton Tripp") and Kate Mara (as "Zoe Tripp") in the 2005 film The Californians "Little Boxes" is the theme song for "Xurupita's Farm II", a recurring sketch about a reality TV show on the Brazilian comedy program Pânico na TV. In 2012, a re-worded version of the song, written by Sniffy Dog, was used in a UK TV commercial for mobile telephone operator O2. Three versions are known to have been broadcast, one of them is sung by Adrienne Stiefel,[9], while another is sung by Jedd Holden.[6] The third is an instrumental non-vocal version.[10] [edit]See also Urban sprawl Suburb Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Bob Merrill's 1952 song, that uses the same tune. Notes ^ Merriam-Webster definition of 'Ticky-tacky' — at In-N-Out Burger - Daly City Caution High Headroom -- 7 CEES Bus - Jon Hammond http://www.7cees.org/ We make creative experiences with people. We just traveled the country for 5 months on a mission to collaborate with and inspire people to use their creative passion to make a difference in their community. Now we're in Madison, WI building up for our next adventure- get in touch! Sam Lundsten Sam is looking to understand the way our perspective shapes the world around us. Alex Connelly Alex has a background in art, laughing and friends. He hopes to explore the common as well as the uncommon, maintain and create life long relationships, and find his direction in life. Michael Fenchel Michael's fascinated by the experience of consciousness, and excited to be alive and part of a time when we're really starting to understand and have the freedom to shape it. *Pursuing A Vision The more I look and around, the more I realize that one of the biggest influences 0n people’s happiness is pursuing a vision. Could be a vision for a business, a vision for relationships, or a vision for how to spend the day- doesn’t matter much, so long as it’s there. Vision gives us a reason to try and ignites us with energy to create. Otherwise we just float with the whims of the world, reacting. If you see, then you can change ‘react’ to ‘create’ (the subtleties of language are mesmerizing). It’s a tricky thing in business though, vision, because it’s so hard to measure and thus so difficult to reassure ourselves that results will come from enhancing it. People want to talk in terms of numbers, strategies, attention, payoff- all the sexy things that make entrepreneurship so alluring. That way they can convince themselves they’re not wasting time. But at the end of the day, if the vision behind those sex-ified metrics isn’t complete or wasn’t ever really considered in the first place, then all anyone’s doing is closing little loophole opportunities in the system. Not that that’s bad, it’s great and it helps our economy run and life go on; however, I think as people we want to do more than that, because we know we can. We want to take something we feel inside that nobody else knows and use it to make the world a little better. In doing that, we hope to find support for ourselves, but it’s tough. Nobody pays for you to develop your vision, because nobody else directly benefits in the short term. In fact, many roles and jobs prefer that you adopt the company vision and policy and leave dreams and other ideas aside or as secondary considerations. One trend I’ve noticed is for people to try to find quick alternatives to make a lot of money so they can spend the rest of their time doing what they love. In my case, I’ve worked on technology start-ups with huge upside, and when I was younger, I played poker online. Now there are even full online casinos to give us a chance at bypassing our work obligations ;). Still, while get-rich-quick-and-give-back successes are touted in the media and held up as an ideal, they’re incredibly rare and more importantly, they can be a trap. One thing about vision is that it builds on itself- what you will see tomorrow is a compound of what you see today and the experiences you have in the mean time. That means if we focus on monetary or other success through sacrifice of true creative passion, every day it gets a little harder to pivot and find that clarity of purpose and inspiration. In leaving the secure physics, math and computer science world and entering the world of theory, writing, meditation and social start-ups I’ve had to relinquish financial security and dreams of achieving overnight success. But in return, I’ve received the freedom to know that we can create what we want, so long as we can see it first. Port Costa California -- "Ox Racing" Zone - Jon Hammond where 24.0% of the population were Czech American in Port Costa http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Port_Costa,_California The population was 190 at the 2010 census. Geography According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 0.16 square miles (0.41 km2), all of it land. Port Costa is surrounded by rolling hills grazed by cattle and managed by East Bay Regional Park District. Carquinez Strait Regional Shoreline stretches from Crockett through Port Costa and to Martinez. Big Bull Valley Creek runs along McEwen Road into a historic reservoir just above the town, then it runs in an underground pipe culvert beneath the town to the Carquinez Strait.[2] [edit]History Port Costa School Port Costa was founded in 1879 as a landing for the railroad ferry Solano, owned and operated by the Central Pacific Railroad.[3] This put Port Costa on the main route of the transcontinental railroad.[3] The Solano, later joined by the Contra Costa, carried entire trains across the Carquinez Strait from Benicia to Port Costa,[3] from whence they continued on to the Oakland Pier.[3] For a time, it was also the United States' busiest wheat-shipping port and had a reputation as a colorful, sometimes violent community.[citation needed] After California's wheat output dropped in the early 20th Century and especially, after the Southern Pacific (which took over the operations of the Central Pacific) constructed a railroad bridge at Martinez in 1930 to replace the ferry crossing, Port Costa lost population and importance.[3] Bill Rich was an influential property owner and raconteur. Since the late 1960s, it has mainly been a small shopping venue for antique hunters and a gathering place for bikers and motorcyclists. Port Costa's first post office was established in 1881.[4] [edit]Demographics [edit]2010 The 2010 United States Census[5] reported that Port Costa had a population of 190. The population density was 1,200.1 people per square mile (463.3/km²). The racial makeup of Port Costa was 172 (90.5%) White, 2 (1.1%) African American, 2 (1.1%) Native American, 7 (3.7%) Asian, and 7 (3.7%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10 persons (5.3%). The Census reported that 100% of the population lived in households. There were 99 households, out of which 15 (15.2%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 37 (37.4%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 4 (4.0%) had a female householder with no husband present, 5 (5.1%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 10 (10.1%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 3 (3.0%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 42 households (42.4%) were made up of individuals and 9 (9.1%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.92. There were 46 families (46.5% of all households); the average family size was 2.61. The population was spread out with 19 people (10.0%) under the age of 18, 13 people (6.8%) aged 18 to 24, 38 people (20.0%) aged 25 to 44, 80 people (42.1%) aged 45 to 64, and 40 people (21.1%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 52.5 years. For every 100 females there were 97.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.2 males. There were 110 housing units at an average density of 694.8 per square mile (268.3/km²), of which 53 (53.5%) were owner-occupied, and 46 (46.5%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 5.4%; the rental vacancy rate was 2.1%. 118 people (62.1% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 72 people (37.9%) lived in rental housing units. [edit]2000 As of the census[6] of 2000, there were 232 people, 108 households, and 60 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 342.1 people per square mile (131.7/km²). There were 115 housing units at an average density of 169.6 per square mile (65.3/km²). The racial makeup of the CDP was 90.95% White, 0% Black,1.29% Native American, 1.29% Asian, 1.72% from other races, and 4.74% from two or more races. 6.90% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 108 households out of which 20.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.3% were married couples living together, 3.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 44.4% were non-families. 34.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.80. In the CDP the population was spread out with 15.5% under the age of 18, 4.7% from 18 to 24, 28.0% from 25 to 44, 37.5% from 45 to 64, and 14.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females there were 121.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 110.8 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $61,429, as was the median income for a family. Males had a median income of $40,769 versus $58,000 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $33,563. About 9.7% of families and 10.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.9% of those under the age of eighteen and none of those sixty five or over. 100% of the residents speak English Sottsdale Arizona -- Jon Hammond at Fender World Headquarters - Vintage Modified Series - Band-Master http://www.fender.com/products/search.php?section=guitaramplifiers&series=Vintage+Modified London -- circa 1987 - the late great John Entwistle inscribed for me on this magazine foto: "This Space Vacant For Advertizing" on his high forehead. - Jon Hammond Miss ya' big John! http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Entwistle John Alec Entwistle (9 October 1944 – 27 June 2002) was an English bass guitarist, songwriter, singer, horn player, and film and record producer who was best known as the bass player for the rock band The Who. His aggressive lead sound influenced many rock bass players.[1][2] He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of the Who in 1990. Entwistle's lead instrument approach used pentatonic lead lines, and a then-unusual trebly sound ("full treble, full volume") created by roundwound RotoSound steel bass strings. He had a collection of over 200 instruments by the time of his death, reflecting the different brands he used over his career: Fender, Danelectro, and Rickenbacker basses in the 1960s, Gibson and Alembic basses in the 1970s, Warwick in the 1980s, and Status all-Carbon fibre basses in the 1990s. In 2011, a Rolling Stone reader poll selected him as the No. 1 rock bassist of all time. Birth and early career John Alec Entwistle was born in 1944 into a musical family in Chiswick, a London suburb. His father Herbert played trumpet and his mother, Queenie Maud Johns Entwistle (29 November 1922 – 4 March 2011), played piano. His parents' marriage failed soon after he was born, and Entwistle was mostly raised by his grandparents. He attended Acton County Grammar School and joined the Middlesex Youth Orchestra. His initial music training was on trumpet, french horn and piano, all three of which would feature in his later rock compositions. In the early 1960s, Entwistle played in several traditional jazz and Dixieland outfits. He formed a duo called The Confederates with schoolmate Pete Townshend, and later joined Roger Daltrey's band The Detours, playing a major role in encouraging Townshend's budding talent on the guitar, and insisting that Townshend be admitted to the Detours as well. After changes in personnel, Daltrey had fired all members of his band with the exception of Entwistle, Townshend, and the drummer, Doug Sandom, although it was only because he had not yet found a drummer with sufficient talent to replace him. Upon the entry of Keith Moon to the band, Daltrey relinquished the role of guitar to Townshend, becoming frontman and lead singer in the band, while the band considered several changes of name, temporarily performing as the High Numbers, and finally settling on the name The Who. When the band decided that the blond Daltrey needed to stand out more from the others, Entwistle dyed his naturally golden hair black, and it remained so until the early 1980s. Around 1963 Entwistle played in a London band called The Initials for a short while; the band split when a planned resident stint in Spain fell through. Entwistle picked up two nicknames during his tenure as a musician. He was nicknamed "The Ox" because of his strong constitution and seeming ability to "eat, drink or do more than the rest of them." Bill Wyman, bassist for the Rolling Stones, described him as "the quietest man in private but the loudest man on stage." Entwistle who was one of the first to make use of Marshall stacks, in an attempt to hear himself over the ruckus of his bandmates, who famously leapt and moved about on the stage, with Townshend and Moon smashing their instruments on numerous occasions. (Moon even employed explosives in his drum kit during one memorable performance). Pete Townshend later remarked that John started using Marshalls in order to hear himself over drummer Keith Moon's rapid-fire drumming style, and Townshend himself also had to use them just to be heard over John. They both continued expanding and experimenting with their rigs, until (at a time when most bands used 50–100 watt amplifiers with single cabinets) they were both using twin Stacks with new experimental prototype 200 watt amps. However, no matter what was taking place on stage, Entwistle stood by calmly and quietly, while plucking the strings very fast, in what was later described as his "typewriter" technique of playing, which earned him the name "Thunderfingers" by his bandmates and some fans of the Who. The band had a strong influence on the equipment of their contemporaries at the time, with Cream and the Jimi Hendrix Experience both following suit. Although they pioneered and directly contributed to the development of the "classic" Marshall sound (at this point their equipment was being built/tweaked to their personal specifications), they would only use Marshalls for a couple of years. Entwistle eventually switched to using a Sound City rig in search of his perfect sound, with Townshend following suit later as well. Townshend points out that Jimi Hendrix, their new label mate, was influenced beyond just the band's volume. Both Entwistle and Townshend had begun experimenting with feedback from the amplifiers in the mid-1960s, and Hendrix had not begun destroying his instruments until after he had witnessed The Who's "auto-destructive art". Entwistle backstage with The Who, 1967 Entwistle's wry and sometimes dark sense of humour clashed at times with Pete Townshend's more introspective work. Though he continued to contribute material to all of The Who's albums, with the exception of Quadrophenia, his frustration with having his material recorded by the band, only to relinquish the position of vocalist to Daltrey, was a large part of the reason[citation needed] he became the first member of the band to release a solo record, Smash Your Head Against the Wall (1971). The only member of the band to have had formal training, he contributed backing vocals and performed on the French horn (heard in "Pictures of Lily"), trumpet, bugle, and jaw harp, and on some occasions (generally at least once per album & concert), lead vocalist on his compositions, the only exceptions being the first verse of "Happy Jack" and Ivor's part on "A Quick One, While He's Away". Examples are on Tommy, ("Cousin Kevin", "Fiddle About"), on the live favourite "Heaven and Hell", and on Who's Next ("My Wife"). He layered several horns and performed all pieces to create the brass as heard on songs such as "5:15", among others, while recording the Who's studio albums, and for concerts, arranged a horn section to perform with the band. In concert, Entwistle was content to stand quite still beside the uproar onstage, delivering dense and high-energy body to the music, but taking the spotlight only when singing lead. The exception was blinding illumination of his roaring solo notes in opening "Pinball Wizard". Entwistle playing at Maple Leaf Gardens, Toronto 1976 Photo: Jean-Luc Ourlin Entwistle also experimented throughout his career with "bi-amping," where the high and low ends of the bass sound are sent through separate signal paths, allowing for more control over the output. At one point his rig became so loaded with speaker cabinets and processing gear that it was dubbed "Little Manhattan," in reference to the towering, skyscraper-like stacks, racks and blinking lights. His "full treble, full volume" approach to bass sound was originally supposed to be captured in the bass solo to "My Generation". According to Entwistle, his original intention was to feature the distinctive Danelectro Longhorn bass, which had a very twangy sound, in the solo, but the strings kept breaking. Eventually, he recorded a simpler solo using a pick with a Fender Jazz Bass strung with LaBella tapewound strings. This solo bass break is important as it is one of the earliest bass solos (if not the first) captured on a rock record. A live recording of The Who exists from this period (c. 1965), with Entwistle playing a Danelectro on "My Generation", giving an idea of what that solo would have sounded like. [edit]Late career In 1990 he toured with The Best, a short-lived supergroup which also included Keith Emerson, Joe Walsh, Jeff "Skunk" Baxter and Simon Phillips. Toward the end of his career, he formed "The John Entwistle "Project"" with longtime friend, drummer Steve Luongo, and guitarist Mark Hitt both formerly of Rat Race Choir. Out of that, came "The John Entwistle Band". Godfrey Townsend ("no 'h', no relation" [to Pete]) replaced Mark Hitt on guitar and took over lead vocals. In 1996, the band went on the "Left for Dead" tour with Alan St. Jon on keyboards. After Entwistle toured with The Who for Quadrophenia in 1996–97, the Entwistle band set off on the "Left for Dead – the Sequel" tour in late 1998, now with Gordon Cotten on keyboards. After this second venture, the band released an album of highlights from the tour, called Left for Live. In 1995 Entwistle also toured and recorded with Ringo Starr in one of the incarnations of Ringo's "All-Starr Band". This one also featured Billy Preston, Randy Bachman, and Mark Farner. In this ensemble, he played and sang "Boris the Spider" as his Who showpiece, along with "My Wife". Towards the end of his career he used a Status Graphite Buzzard Bass, which he designed. From 1999 to early 2002, John played as part of The Who. As a side project, John played bass in a country-rock album project of original songs called the Pioneers, with Mickey Wynne on lead guitar, Ron Magness on rhythm guitar and keyboards, Roy Michaels on vocals and John Delgado doing drums. The album was released on Voiceprint Records. Shortly before his death, Entwistle had agreed to play some US dates with the band including Nashville's Grand Ole Opry, following his final upcoming Who tour. In 2001 he played in Alan Parsons' Beatles tribute show "A Walk Down Abbey Road". The show also featured Ann Wilson of Heart, Todd Rundgren, David Pack of Ambrosia, Godfrey Townsend on guitar, Steve Luongo on drums, and John Beck on keyboards. Between that tour and his prior tour with Ringo, Entwistle joked that he had played "Yellow Submarine" more often than Paul McCartney. That year he also played with The Who at The Concert for New York City. He also joined forces again with "The John Entwistle Band" for an 8 gig tour. This time Chris Clark was on Keyboards. In January–February 2002 John played his last concerts with The Who in a handful of dates in England, the last being 8 February in London's Royal Albert Hall. In late 2002, an expanded 2-CD Left for Live Deluxe was released, highlighting The John Entwistle Band performances. [edit]Death Entwistle died in hotel room 658 at the Hard Rock Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas on 27 June 2002 one day before the scheduled first show of The Who's 2002 US tour. He had gone to bed that night with a stripper/groupie, Alycen Rowse, who woke at 10 am to find Entwistle cold and unresponsive. The Clark County medical examiner determined that death was due to a heart attack induced by cocaine.[4] His funeral was held at St Edward's Church in Stow-on-the-Wold, Gloucestershire, England, on 10 July 2002. He was cremated and his ashes were buried privately. A memorial service was held on 24 October 2002 at St. Martin-in-the-Fields, Trafalgar Square, London. Entwistle's enormous collection of guitars and basses was auctioned at Sotheby's in London by his son, Christopher Entwistle, to meet anticipated duties on his father's estate. Joy Division/New Order bassist Peter Hook is among those who acquired some of Entwistle's basses at the auction. His mansion in Stow-on-the-Wold in the Cotswolds and a number of his personal effects were later sold off to meet the demands of the Inland Revenue; coincidentally, Entwistle worked for the agency in 1962-3, prior to joining The Who. While the band – including Entwistle and Moon – recorded with a multitude of instruments, they always performed as a four-piece band. Following his death, Moon was replaced not only by Small Faces/Faces drummer Kenney Jones and later Simon Phillips and then Zak Starkey (son of Ringo Starr), but The Who also added keyboardist John "Rabbit" Bundrick to the live band. Similarly, when Entwistle died, his place in the live band was filled by Pino Palladino, with second guitarist Simon Townshend (Pete Townshend's brother) having been added at rehearsals just weeks before Entwistle's death. At least one aspect of Entwistle`s life came out after his death even for his closest fellows and The Who members. "It wasn’t until the day of his funeral that I discovered that he’d spent most of his life as a freemason", said Pete Townshend.[5] Welsh-born bassist Pino Palladino, who played on several of Pete Townshend's solo records, took over for Entwistle on stage when The Who resumed their postponed US tour on 1 July 2002.[6] Pete Townshend and Roger Daltrey spoke at length about their reaction to Entwistle's death. Some of their comments can be found on The Who Live in Boston DVD. Geddy Lee, of the band Rush, dedicated their performance of the song "Between Sun and Moon" to Entwistle on the opening night of their Vapor Trails tour which began the following night on 28 June 2002 in Hartford, Connecticut.[citation needed] [edit]Technique Entwistle performing at the Manchester Apollo in 1987 Entwistle's technique ranged from using fingers, plectra and tapping to using harmonics in his passages. He would change the style of play between songs and even during songs to change the sound he produced. His fingering technique would involve pressing down on the string hard and releasing in an attempt to reproduce a trebly, twangy sound. Note, however, that he would change his thumb position from pick-up, to the E string and occasionally even allowing his thumb to float near the pick-up. His plectrum technique would involve holding the plectrum between his thumb and forefinger, with the rest of his fingers outstretched for balance. Entwistle's playing style was rarely captured well in the studio. He was better heard in concert, where he and guitarist Pete Townshend frequently exchanged roles, with Entwistle providing rapid melodic lines and Townshend anchoring the song with rhythmic chord work. Indeed, Townshend noted that Entwistle did the rhythmic timekeeping in the band, fulfilling the role of the drummer. Moon, on the other hand, with all his flourishes around the kit, was like a keyboard player. In 1989, Entwistle pointed out that, according to modern standards, "The Who haven't a proper bass player."[7] Entwistle also developed what he called a "typewriter" approach to playing the bass. It involved positioning the right hand over the strings so all four fingers could be used to tap percussively on the strings, causing them to strike the fretboard with a distinctive twangy sound. This gives the player the ability to play three or four strings at once, or to use several fingers on a single string. It allowed him to create passages that were very percussive and melodic. He used this approach to mimic the fills used by his drummers in band situations, sometimes sending the fills back at the drummers faster than the drummers themselves could play them. This method is unique and should not be confused with the hammer-on tapping techniques of Eddie Van Halen and Stu Hamm or the slapping technique of Larry Graham, and in fact pre-dates these other techniques. A demonstration of this approach to bass playing can be seen on a video called John Entwistle – Master Class, part of Arlen Roth's Hot Licks instructional series, as well as Mike Gordon's film, Rising Low, where Entwistle can be seen frequently using his fore, middle, and ring fingers on his right hand when playing. This allowed him to create "clusters of notes" in his bass lines, as well as play triplets with relative simplicity. Notable in his left-handed technique is his use of slides, positioning the left hand for octaves and his use of the pentatonic scale.[citation needed] [edit]Influence Entwistle identified his influences as a combination of his school training on French horn, trumpet, and piano (giving his fingers strength and dexterity). Musicians who influenced him included rock & roll guitarists Duane Eddy and Gene Vincent, and American soul and R&B bassists such as James Jamerson.[8] In turn, Entwistle has been a massive influence on the playing styles and sounds used by generations of bass players that have followed him, including Geezer Butler,[9] Steve Harris, Matt Freeman, Krist Novoselic, Ian Hill, Geddy Lee,[10] Billy Sheehan,[11] Victor Wooten,[12] Tom Petersson,[13] and Chris Squire.[14] Entwistle continues to top 'best ever bass player' polls in musicians magazines. In 2000, Guitar magazine named him "Bassist of the Millennium" in a readers' poll.[15] J. D. Considine ranked Entwistle no. 9 on his list of "Top 50 Bass Players".[16] He was named the second best bassist on Creem Magazine's 1974 Reader Poll Results.[17] In 2011, a Rolling Stone reader poll selected him as the No. 1 bassist of all time.[3] [edit]Equipment See also: The Who's musical equipment This is a list of Entwistle's amps and guitars in chronological order of which he used them: Fender Precision Bass (sunburst, refinished to white in 1965) Gibson EB-2 semi-acoustic bass (natural) Mosrite Ventures Bass Danelectro long-horn bass Fender Jazz Bass (sunburst) Rickenbacker 4001S bass Gretsch 6070 Hollow Body Bass Gibson EB-3 bass Fender Bass VI Vox Cougar Sidewinder IV V272 bass in a burgundy-grain finish Custom “Axe” Jazz bass – seen using one with a thunderbird neck in "Tommy" Custom-made “Spider” bass Fender Precision Bass (slab body) in Olympic White, with maple neck Sunburst Fender Precision Bass with rosewood fretboard and tortise shell pickguard “Frankenstein” Fender Precision Bass with maple neck (made from several different Fender basses, and Entwistle's main stage and studio bass from 1967–1971) Vox Violin Bass Fender Precision Bass with rosewood fingerboard (black) Rickenbacker 4005 hollow body bass Gibson Thunderbird IV bass (both "Reverse" and "Non-Reverse"-styles) "Fenderbird" basses (consisted of Gibson Thunderbird bodies (mostly "non-reverse" styles) and maple Fender Precision bass necks) Rickenbacker 4005LS "Lightshow" hollow body bass Alembic Series I basses Fender “Explorer-Bird” (studio only) Rickenbacker 4001 prototype 8-string bass (white) Alembic Series I Exploiter basses, 4 & 8 string Custom Peter Cook “Lightning Bolt” bass Modulus Buzzard graphite bass (with Warwick body, green) Warwick custom Buzzard JE Alembic Spyder Bass Status Graphite JE Buzzard Bass Mellophone (Marching French Horn) Circa 1996 -- 'Acid Jazz' - first release of Jon Hammond LATE RENT cd album on Hotwire Records / EFA Medien in Jazz thing magazine - Cologne, Germany http://www.jonhammondband.com/ The Story Behind The Beat of LATE RENT in the voice of the artist Jon Hammond: http://behindthebeat.com/2004/12/jon-hammond-late-rent/ Jon Hammond says "the fingers are the singers.’" The latest CD from this exceptional and soulful Hammond organist is the proof. "Late Rent" draws on decades of great recording sessions and top live performances to showcase his own playing and many top jazz and funk artists. It shows why the Hammond organ is one of the most enduring electric instruments and why Hammond is one of its best players. The Late Rent Story Jon Hammond waited half his life to make this CD – starting with being an underground TV host. Swingin’ Funky Jazz & Blues Jon Hammond describes his style of music and how he learned to play it. Two Hot Tracks Jon Hammond recalls one of his first songs – from age 15 – and a great Sunday session. Sonny’s Advice A little advice on melody from a great sax player went a long way.. — with Ulrich Vormehr, Bernard Purdie, James Preston and Todd Anderson. Circa 1996 -- 'Acid Jazz' - first release of Jon Hammond LATE RENT cd album on Hotwire Records / EFA Medien in Jazz thing magazine - Cologne, Germany http://www.jonhammondband.com/ New York NY 9 W.57th St. The Solow Building -- Jon Hammond at the Big 9 of 9 W.57th St. where the Sony Executive offices are located on 46th floor. This is where John O'Donnell - then President of Sony (1985) offered Jon Hammond a 7 year exclusive deal for The Jon Hammond Show on the Sony Software Label. At the time they only had Tina Turner, David Bowie and an act called Private Dances. http://www.HammondCast.com/ Hamburg Germany -- "Diary of Jazz" reference book in NDR JAZZREDAKTION Buero - Jon Hammond http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norddeutscher_Rundfunk Norddeutscher Rundfunk (NDR) (North German Broadcasting) is a public radio and television broadcaster, based in Hamburg. In addition to the city-state of Hamburg, NDR transmits for the German states of Lower Saxony, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Schleswig-Holstein. NDR is a member of the ARD consortium. NDR studios NDR television buildings in Hamburg Studios in Hamburg are split into two locations, both of them within the borough of Eimsbüttel: Television studios are located in the quarter of Lokstedt as the radio studios are located in the quarter of Rotherbaum, a little closer to the city centre. In addition to these, there are further regional studios, also comprising both television and radio facilities. They are located in the state capitals Hanover, Kiel and Schwerin as well as at the ARD's national studios in Berlin. The NDR also maintains other regional offices within its four state territories. Finances Licensing fees required for Radio and TV sets are €17.03 per month, as of 1 April 2005. For radio reception alone, the monthly fee is €5.52. These fees are not collected directly by the NDR but by the GEZ that is a common organisation of ARD, its members, ZDF and Deutschlandfunk. Stations The NDR currently provides a number of services on its own or in co-operation with other broadcasters: Television ARD Das Erste — joint national channel NDR Fernsehen (formerly N3 and Norddeutsches Fernsehen) — third public service channel for the NDR area and Bremen, in co-operation with Radio Bremen. Phoenix — events channel produced by ARD and ZDF KI.KA — children's channel produced by ARD and ZDF Arte — Franco-German culture channel 3sat— cultural channel, co-produced by the ARD, ZDF, ORF, and SRG tagesschau24 Radio NDR 90.3 — Local station for Hamburg, playing music for older listeners. NDR 1 Niedersachsen — Local station for Lower Saxony, run from Hanover with some regional opt-outs. Plays music for older listeners. NDR 1 Welle Nord — Local station for Schleswig-Holstein, run from Kiel with some regional opt-outs. Plays music for older listeners. NDR 1 Radio MV — Local station for Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, run from Schwerin with some regional opt-outs. Plays music for older listeners. NDR 2 — Popular music station for middle-aged listeners. This is a commercial public service station. NDR Kultur — Arts and culture station. Plays classical music. NDR Info — News and information station. N-Joy — youth station. Nordwestradio — Cultural station for northwest Lower Saxony and Bremen, produced by Radio Bremen. Musical organizations The NDR has four musical organizations, including two orchestras, a chorus and a "big band": NDR Sinfonieorchester — the North German Radio Symphony Orchestra; created in 1945 as the Symphony Orchestra of the NWDR and continued by the NDR under its current name since 1955. Principal conductors have included Günter Wand and John Eliot Gardiner. NDR Radiophilharmonie — the NDR Radio Philharmonic; created in 1950 as the Hanover Radio Orchestra of the NWDR and continued by the NDR under its current name since 1955. Principal conductors have included Willy Steiner and Bernhard Klee. The orchestra plays light classical or "concert hall" music. NDR Chor or Chor des Norddeutschen Rundfunks — created in 1946 by the NWDR and continued under its current name by the NDR since 1955. The choir specializes in "Alte Musik", but a broad repertory also includes contemporary music. NDR Bigband; created by the NWDR and continued by the NDR in 1955 as the NDR Studioband. Renamed NDR Bigband in 1971. Hamburg. St. Pauli -- Cadillac on Schulterblatt (Straße) Jon Hammond - cruising in Cadillac Convertible in Hamburg http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schulterblatt_(Straße) Das Schulterblatt ist eine Straße in den Hamburger Stadtteilen Sternschanze, Altona-Nord und Eimsbüttel und gilt als Kern des Schanzenviertels. Es ist entstanden aus der Landstraße nach Eimsbüttel und lag im Grenzgebiet zwischen Altona und Hamburg. Von Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts bis zum Zweiten Weltkrieg war sie eine Einkaufs- und Vergnügungsstraße. Seit Mitte der 1980er Jahre hat sie sich durch die Eröffnung zahlreicher Gaststätten zu einer Kneipenstraße entwickelt. Der Name geht zurück auf ein Wirtshaus, das das Schulterblatt eines Wals als Aushängeschild benutzte, so dass die Straße ab etwa 1700 im Volksmund Beim Schulterblatt genannt wurde.[1] Das Wirtshaus selbst fand 1717 im Altonaer Grundbuch Erwähnung. Auf einer Karte zum Grenzvergleich zwischen Altona und Hamburg aus dem Jahr 1745 ist die Straße als Bey dem Schulter Blat eingetragen. Die offizielle Benennung in Schulterblatt erfolgte im Jahr 1841.[2] Bis in die Nachkriegszeit wurde weitverbreitet von der Schulterblatt gesprochen.[3] Es handelte sich dabei um eine aus dem Missingsch übertragene Ungenauigkeit im Gebrauch des Genus. Diese Ausdrucksweise ist jedoch heutzutage weitgehend verschwunden, stattdessen wird grammatikalisch korrekt das Schulterblatt verwendet. Lage und Verlauf [Bearbeiten] Schulterblatt, 2010. In der Bildmitte der Kreuzungsbereich mit Juliusstraße / Susannenstraße sowie Markstände auf der „Piazza“ Das Schulterblatt liegt knapp vier Kilometer westlich der Hamburger Innenstadt im Grenzbereich der Bezirke Hamburg-Mitte, Altona und Eimsbüttel. Es bildet zusammen mit der Budapester Straße, dem Neuen Pferdemarkt und der Eimsbütteler Chaussee einen Straßenverlauf, der der ehemaligen Landstraße von der Stadtgrenze Hamburgs am Millerntor in nordwestlicher Richtung bis nach Eimsbüttel entspricht. Die Straße selbst ist 800 Meter lang und liegt in den Stadtteilen Sternschanze, Altona-Nord und Eimsbüttel. Das Schulterblatt beginnt am nördlichen Ende des Neuen Pferdemarkts, an dem auch, nordöstlich abzweigend, die Schanzenstraße ihren Anfang nimmt, und verläuft in einem leichten Bogen nach Nordwesten. Nach 80 Metern mündet links die Lerchenstraße ein und nach etwa 300 Metern kreuzt der Straßenzug Juliusstraße/Susannenstraße. Im Anschluss verbreitert sich an der rechten Seite der Fußgängerbereich zu einem „Piazza“ genannten Platz. Nach gut einhundert Metern münden auf der rechten Straßenseite die Rosenhofstraße und dreißig Meter weiter links die Eifflerstraße. Anschließend unterquert die Straße eine Brücke der Hamburg-Altonaer Verbindungsbahn. Nach weiteren einhundert Metern kreuzt der Straßenzug Max-Brauer-Allee/Altonaer Straße das Schulterblatt. In der Straßenmitte befindet sich seit dem Jahr 2008 die Grenze zwischen den Stadtteilen Altona-Nord, Sternschanze und Eimsbüttel und damit zwischen den Bezirken Altona und Eimsbüttel. Unmittelbar nördlich davon zweigt schräg nach links die Eimsbütteler Straße ab, nach wenigen Metern auf der rechten Seite die Amandastraße. Das Schulterblatt endet auf Höhe der Nagels Allee und geht dort in die Eimsbütteler Chaussee über. Anstelle der ehemaligen Einmündung der Margarethenstraße (seit 1965 Margaretenstraße) gegenüber der Nagels Allee, trennt auf der rechten Seite seit den 1960er Jahren lediglich ein Fußweg zwischen den Häuserzeilen den Straßenverlauf. Grenzgebiet und Grenzverschiebungen [Bearbeiten] Ausschnitt der Grenzkarte von 1745, worauf die Grenzzeichen zwischen der Stadt Hamburg und Altona beschrieben Grenzstein im Pflaster des Schulterblatts Die Gegend beim Schulterblatt war seit der Gründung Altonas im 16. Jahrhundert dessen nordöstliche Grenze, sowohl zum Hamburger Berg, der späteren Vorstadt St. Pauli, wie zu den Ländereien des St. Johannis-Klosters. Letztere umfassten den Heidberg von Heimichhude, (der späteren Sternschanze), den Schäferkamp und das Dorf Eimsbüttel. Mit der Reformation kamen sie ab 1536 unter die Rechtsgewalt der Stadt Hamburg und standen unter der Verwaltung der Klosterstiftung. Als Grenze wurde dabei das Tal des Pepermöhlenbek angesehen, der zeitweise auch Borchgrave (Grenzgraben) genannt wurde.[4] Er entsprang am Heidberg, verlief westlich der heutigen Bartelsstraße und Lindenallee und mündete in der Gegend der heutigen Marthastraße in die Isebek.[5] Grenzstreitigkeiten waren an der Tagesordnung, bis es 1739 zwischen der damals dänischen Stadt Altona und Hamburg zum Grenzvergleich kam. Dabei wurde der von Altonaer Seite beanspruchter Gebietszwickel Bey dem Schulter Blat aus der hamburgischen Umgebung ausgegrenzt. „Die alte Grenze zwischen Hamburg und Altona folgte [...] einer Linie, die den Taleinschnitt des Pepermöhlenbek und die Westseite des Neuen Pferdemarktes verbindet. Dazwischen durchschnitt sie die Straßenblocks. Dort verlief entlang einer Palisade ein Kontrollgang, der teilweise heute noch sichtbar ist.“[6] Dieser Gebietszwickel ist in der heutigen Bebauung noch nachvollziehbar: er verläuft entlang der Schanzenstraße 1 bis 7, knickt ab in einer Hofeinfahrt zwischen der Schanzenstraße Nr. 7 und Nr. 23 (die dazwischenliegenden Hausnummern fehlen aus eben diesem Grunde), zieht sich durch das Blockinnere schräg über den Hamburger Hof (Schulterblatt 24 a-h) und wird mit dem spitz zulaufenden Grundriss des Boardinghouses (Schulterblatt 36) aufgenommen. Markierung des ehemaligen Grenzverlaufs: links Altona, rechts Hamburg Damit ergab sich für das Schulterblatt die Situation, dass im ersten Abschnitt die Grundstücke beidseitig, und ab Höhe der heutigen Hausnummer 49 bis zur Einmündung der Eimsbütteler Straße linksseitig zu Altona gehörten. Die rechte Straßenseite, ab der heutigen Hausnummer 58, hingegen war Klosterland. Die Grenze zu Eimsbüttel wiederum verlief von der heutigen Altonaer Straße schräg über das Schulterblatt entlang der Eimsbütteler Straße. Am 29. Dezember 1845 wurden die Grenzen der Vorstadt St. Pauli erweitert „durch die Hinzuziehung des ganzen ehemaligen Rosenhofs, so daß die Vorstadt bis an die Dorfschaft Eimsbüttel grenzte und eine gerade Linie in der Verlängerung der Westseite der Weidenallee diesen Zuwachs gegen die Sternschanze abschloß.“[7] Mit dem Groß-Hamburg-Gesetz von 1937 und der damit einhergehenden Eingemeindung Altonas nach Hamburg kam es zu weiteren Gebietsverschiebungen. Die Grenze zwischen St. Pauli und Altona wurde auf der linken Straßenseite bis zur Juliusstraße und auf der rechten bis zur Bahnbrücke vorverlegt, der Abschnitt zwischen Juliusstraße und Bahnbrücke gehörte zum Stadtteil Altona-Altstadt, hingegen das Stück nördlich der Bahn bis hin zur Eimsbütteler Straße zu Altona Nord. Die linke Straßenseite von der Eimsbütteler Straße bis zur Nagels Allee und die rechte vom Bahndamm bis zur Einmündung Margaretenstraße wiederum waren Eimsbüttel zugehörig. Damit zog sich das Schulterblatt nicht nur durch vier Stadtteile, sondern unterstand auch der Verwaltung von drei verschiedenen Bezirken: Neben Altona und Eimsbüttel auch dem Bezirk Hamburg-Mitte für den St. Pauli-Abschnitt. Das Stadtwappen von Altona in Richtung Schulterblatt und das Hamburger zur Schanzenstraße hin. Mit dem Gesetz über die räumliche Gliederung der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg wurde zum 1. März 2008 der neue Stadtteil Sternschanze geschaffen und dem Schulterblatt eine neue Zuordnung gegeben. Linksseitig bis zur Bahnbrücke und rechts bis zur Altonaer Straße gehört es nun zu eben diesem neuen Stadtteil und damit wieder zu Altona. Der linksseitige Abschnitt nördlich der Bahn bis zur Eimsbütteler Straße verblieb bei Altona-Nord, der Eimsbütteler Teil beginnt ab der Eimsbütteler Straße und der Altonaer Straße.[8] Als Erinnerung an die Grenzziehung von 1739 befindet sich an dem Eckhaus Schulterblatt / Schanzenstraße, einem vierstöckigen Wohn- und Geschäftshaus der Gründerzeit, im reichhaltigen Fassadenschmuck oberhalb des zweiten Stockwerks zur Schanzenstraße hin das Hamburger und zum Schulterblatt das Altonaer Wappen, beide laubumkränzt und von Putten getragen. Einen weiteren Hinweis geben einige historische Grenzsteine mit der Markierung „A|H“, die in dem Abschnitt von der Einmündung Susannenstraße bis zur Bahnbrücke in das Gehwegpflaster aufgenommen sind. Sie stammen aus dem Jahr 1889, stehen unter Denkmalschutz und befinden sich vor den Hausnummern 88, 92 und 98.[9] Auf der zum Fußgängerbereich ausgebauten Piazza wird der ehemalige Grenzverlauf seit dem Jahr 2002 durch unterschiedliche Pflasterung hervorgehoben. Geschichte [Bearbeiten] Das Schulterblatt war Teil einer Landstraße, die spätestens seit dem 13. Jahrhundert bestand, auf der Höhe des späteren Millerntors vom Elbhöhenweg abzweigte und Richtung Eimsbüttel weiter nach Pinneberg verlief.[10] Das Gebiet stand ab dem 12. Jahrhundert im Eigentum der Grafen von Schauenburg und Holstein, die ständig in finanziellen Nöten steckend 1246 den Hamburger Berg und 1293 die Ländereien nordwestlich der Eimsbüttler Landstraße an das Kloster Herwardeshude, dem späteren St. Johanniskloster, verpfändeten. Das Gebiet südwestlich der Straße blieb Teil der Grafschaft Holstein, ging 1261 in die Grafschaft Holstein-Itzehoe und 1290 in die Grafschaft Holstein-Pinneberg über. Mit dieser gelangte auch der Altonaer Teil des Schulterblatts 1640 durch Erbfolge an Dänemark und wurde im Jahr 1664, mit Verleihung der Stadtrechte an Altona, zu dessen nördlichem Grenzbereich.[11] Erschließung [Bearbeiten] Die erste nachgewiesene Bebauung an der Landstraße nach Eimsbüttel war ein Wirtshaus mit dem Namen „Schulterblatt“, das nach der dänischen Belagerung Hamburgs von 1686 eröffnet und 1717 im Stadtgrundbuch von Altona eingetragen wurde. Der Name geht zurück auf das Schulterblatt eines Wals, das der Wirt von Walfängern der 1685 in Altona gegründeten Grönlandkompanie mitgebracht bekam und als Aushängeschild seiner Gastwirtschaft verwendete.[12] In der Sammlung des Hamburgmuseums befinden sich zwei dieser Schilder: eines ist neben einigen Zeichnungen beidseitig mit dem Schriftzug Schulter=Blatt verziert, auf einem weiteren ist der Satz Hier schenkt man Bier und Brantewein zu lesen. Karte aus dem Jahr 1880 (Ausschnitt) Ab Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts hatten sich an der Gegend des Schulterblatts einige „Privatleute“ angesiedelt, eine erste Apotheke ist für das Jahr 1773 nachgewiesen, die von einem Georg Vogelsank betrieben wurde.[10] Am 27. Dezember 1813 brannten die französischen Besatzer sämtliche Ansiedlungen vor den Hamburger Wallanlagen nieder, so auch die 26 Häuser am Schulterblatt: „Um der Sternschanze eine freie Übersicht zu verschaffen, war der Rosenhof, das Schulterblatt, selbst über die hamburgische Grenze hinaus, dann der Schäferkamp und der größte Theil Eimsbüttels [...] abgebrannt und demoliert und fast alle Baumbepflanzung niedergehauen.“[7] Die Bewohner kehrten nach Abzug der Franzosen zurück und bauten ihre Häuser wieder auf. Auch erste Gewerbebetriebe eröffneten am Schulterblatt, so wurde am 28. September 1831 im Hamburgischen Correspondent bekanntgegeben, dass ein gewisser John Blankley und seine Söhne in der neu errichteten Eisengießerei Teilhaber wurden.[13] Diese hatte ihren Standort hinter der Einmündung der Lerchenstraße. Die städtische Erschließung und Bebauung des Schulterblatts, wie des gesamten Schanzenviertels, begann in der Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts sowohl von Hamburger wie von Altonaer Seite. Der Bau der Verbindungsbahn zwischen dem Bahnhof Altona und dem Bahnhof Klosterthor von 1864 bis 1866 brachte der Straße eine verkehrsgünstige Verbindung. Beim Schulterblatt verlief die Bahnlinie an der Grenze zu Eimsbüttel. Links der Straße, zur Friedenstraße (der heutigen Lippmannstraße) hin, wurde der Bahnhof Schulterblatt als Station zwischen den Bahnhöfen Altona und Sternschanze angelegt. Dazu baute man parallel zur Bahnlinie die Parallelstraße (seit 1945 Eifflerstraße). Der Bahnhof Schulterblatt bestand von 1866 bis 1891, er wurde im Zuge der Verlegung der Trasse auf einen Damm aufgehoben und ab 1893 durch den Bahnhof Holstenstraße ersetzt.[14] Im Jahr 1903 konnte die Eisenbahnbrücke über das Schulterblatt fertiggestellt werden, es handelte sich um eine stählerne Balkenbrücke, die auf Steinwiderlagern und zwei Reihen Stützen konstruiert war.[15] 2005 wurde sie durch den Neubau einer Betonverbundbrücke ersetzt.[16] Geschäfts- und Vergnügungsstraße [Bearbeiten] Bis zum Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts war die Bebauung weitgehend abgeschlossen, die letzte große Lücke wurde 1930 mit der Fertigstellung des Boardinghouse des Westens am Schulterblatt 24-36 geschlossen. Die verschiedenen Baustufen sind, insbesondere auf der linken Straßenseite vor der Juliusstraße, teilweise noch nachvollziehbar. So stehen dort noch zweigeschossige Häuser der ersten Baustufe um 1860, ursprünglich alleinstehende Vorstadthäuser, neben dreigeschossigen Mietshäusern von etwa 1870 bis 1880 und imposanten vierstöckigen Gründerzeithäusern, die um 1890 errichtet wurden. Mit dem Ausbau wurde das Schulterblatt zur Geschäftsstraße, die Erdgeschosse waren weitgehend Läden vorbehalten, die darüberliegenden Etagen zumeist mit großbürgerlichen Wohnungen belegt. In den Hinterhöfen siedelte sich Gewerbe an, vielfach aber waren sie auch mit Arbeiterquartieren, Wohnhöfen und so genannten Terrassen (hinter einem Vorderhaus längs zur Straßenachse verlaufende, zweiseitige Häuserriegel) bebaut. Diese brachten zwar durch separate Küchen, Etagentoiletten und belichtete Treppenhäuser einen gewissen Fortschritt in der Hygiene mit sich, standen dennoch durch die Enge und Dichte der Anlagen in der Tradition der Gängeviertel.[17] Mit der ersten Bebauung entstanden am Schulterblatt zudem zahlreiche Vergnügungsstätten. Bereits 1835 öffnete auf dem Grundstück der heutigen Roten Flora ein Tivoli genanntes Sommertheater mit Ausflugsgarten, ab 1859 um einen Fachwerkrundbau als Schmidts Tivoli ergänzt und ab 1889 durch einen weitläufigen Gebäudekomplex mit Gartenanlagen, dem Gesellschafts- und Concerthaus Flora, ersetzt. Ein weiterer bekannter Bau aus Anfang des 19. Jahrhunderts war das Belle Alliance am Schulterblatt 115-119, hinter der Einmündung der Eimsbütteler Straße, mit großen Gesellschaftssälen, ab 1906 als Kino genutzt. Auf der Höhe Eimsbütteler Straße, um 1900, am linken Bildrand das „Belle-Alliance-Hotel“ Blick aus Richtung Eimsbüttel in das Schulterblatt mit der Bahnbrücke, um 1905 Blick von der Nagels Allee über das Schulterblatt in die Margaretenstraße, links das Kaufhaus Bucky am Anfang der Eimsbütteler Chaussee, um 1910 Auch zahlreiche Wirtshäuser eröffneten bereits im 19. Jahrhundert, so das „Bierhaus Schulterblatt“ am Anfang der Straße, die „Kaisersäle“ an der Ecke der heutigen Max-Brauer-Allee und die „Wartburg“ an der Ecke zur heutigen Nagels Allee (bis ca. 1880 Nagels Weg, vergleiche Stadtplan von 1880). Einige Bekanntheit hatten auch die Lokale „Zauberflöte“ an der Ecke Juliusstraße und die „Skatdiele“ gegenüber der Flora. Ab Ende der 1920er Jahre bestand im Haus Nummer 47-49 „Hansens Kino“. Insbesondere im Eimsbütteler Teil des Schulterblatts, nördlich der Bahntrasse, entwickelten sich etwa ab der Jahrhundertwende größere Ladengeschäfte und Kaufhäuser. An der Ecke zur Altonaer Straße befand sich der Laden von Oscar Kautzky, an der Einmündung der Amandastraße das Kaufhaus Poetsch. Es hatte einen jüdischen Eigentümer und wurde Anfang der 1930er Jahren von Karstadt übernommen. Eine Straßenecke weiter, an der Kreuzung Margaretenstraße, lag das weit bekannte Kaufhaus Bucky. Es ist 1890 als Woll- und Weißwarengeschäft von Carl Bucky, einem Juden, gegründet worden. Ende der 1920er Jahre machte es durch eine für die damalige Zeit noch ungewöhnliche Neon-Leuchtreklame auf sich aufmerksam.[18] Auch der Werbeslogan „Selbst die Tante aus Kentucky, kommt zum Ausverkauf nach Bucky“ ist vielfach überliefert. Bis 1943 galt das Schulterblatt zusammen mit der Eimsbütteler Chaussee durch die zahlreichen Läden, Kaufhäuser, Kinos und Vergnügungsstätten als Nerv des geschäftigen Lebens außerhalb der Altonaer und Hamburger Innenstadtbereiche. „Man ging abends etwa von der Sillemstraße zum Neuen Pferdemarkt - über Eimsbütteler Chaussee, Schulterblatt: die eine Straßenseite rauf, die andere runter. Dann wurde angeguckt, was man sich kaufen wollte, aber nicht konnte, weil ja das Geld nicht da war.“[19] Weitere Entwicklung [Bearbeiten] Nach der Machtübernahme der Nationalsozialisten kam es ab April 1933 zu wiederholten Übergriffen und Boykottaufrufen gegen Geschäfte mit jüdischend Inhabern, Scheiben wurden eingeworfen und NS-Parolen an die Häuser geschmiert. Bis 1938 wurde eine Vielzahl von Läden und Firmen „arisiert“. So kündigte zum Beispiel die Firma Dasking mit dem Anzeigentitel „Hoppla, jetzt kommen wir!“ die Übernahme des Kaufhauses Bucky an.[20] Weitere, heute bekannte, enteignete Läden waren das Fachgeschäft für Optik, Foto und Kino Campbell & Co., Schulterblatt 156a, das Wäschegeschäft Gazelle, Schulterblatt 140, die Möbelhandlung Elias Kreph, Schulterblatt 32, die Seidenwaren-Handlung Willy Mees & Co., Schulterblatt 144/146, das Herrenkonfektionsgeschäft von Jacob Pfifferling, Schulterblatt 125, das Speier Schuhwarenhaus, Schulterblatt 140/142 und das Damenhutgeschäft von Ferdinand Stern, Schulterblatt 128.[21] Im Zweiten Weltkrieg wurden große Teile des Schulterblatts in der ersten Angriffswelle der Operation Gomorrha in der Nacht vom 24. auf den 25. Juli 1943 zerstört. Betroffen war vor allem der Eimsbütteler Teil ab der Bahnlinie, dessen Gebäudebestand nahezu vollständig ruiniert wurde, aber auch einzelne Gebäude und insbesondere Hinterhöfe im vorderen Abschnitt. Der Wiederaufbau nach dem Krieg war in den meisten Fällen notdürftig, teilzerstörte Häuser wurden um nicht mehr brauchbare Stockwerke gekürzt, vollständig zerstörte mit ein- bis zweigeschossigen Provisorien ersetzt. Im Eimsbütteler Teil fand in den 1960er Jahren eine vollständige Neustrukturierung und -bebauung statt, in dessen Zuge die Margaretenstraße und auch die parallel zum Schulterblatt verlaufende Bartelsstraße verkürzt wurden. In diesem Bereich ist heute der sogenannte Lindenpark angelegt, durch den, in Verlängerung der heutigen Margaretenstraße, ein Fußweg zum Schulterblatt führt. Das Schulterblatt der Nachkriegszeit wies, wie das ganze Schanzenviertel, bis in die 1980er Jahre den Charakter einer zerstörten Straße auf, einige Fassaden behielten über Jahrzehnte schwarze Schutzfarbe, die Bausubstanz galt als „heruntergekommen“ und die Mieten als billig. Ab den 1960er Jahren kam es verstärkt zum Zuzug von Migranten und Studenten, es entwickelte sich eine subkulturelle und „politisch links“ geltende Szene mit einer alternativen Infrastruktur von Läden und Kneipen. Besondere öffentliche Aufmerksamkeit bekam der erfolgreiche Protest der Anwohner gegen den geplanten Bau eines Musical-Theaters am Standort der Flora im Jahr 1988, wie auch die ein Jahr darauf folgende und bis heute andauernde Besetzung des Restgebäudes als Rote Flora. Straßenszene, „Piazza“ gegenüber der Roten Flora, 2005 Von 1986 bis 2009 war das Schulterblatt Sanierungsgebiet.[22] Die Bewohner wehrten sich lange Zeit gegen die damit einhergehende Umstrukturierung und Aufwertung des Viertels, die höhere Mieten mit sich brachten, ein Problem, das heute unter dem Schlagwort Gentrifizierung gefasst wird. Streitpunkte, neben den baulichen Veränderungen, waren die Schließung von sozialen Einrichtungen, wie zum Beispiel der Drogenberatungsstelle FixStern am Schulterblatt 75 zur Jahreswende 2003/2004. Damit wurde die ab Mitte der 1990er Jahre von Anwohnern und Medien problematisierte Entwicklung einer sogenannten offene Drogenszene zu einer Auseinandersetzung um die strukturelle Zukunft des gesamten Quartiers, prägnant zusammengefasst unter der Überschrift: „Das Fenster zum Elend ist zu“.[23] Inzwischen beherrscht vor allem die Gastronomie das Bild der Straße. Insbesondere die im Jahr 2002 zwischen Susannenstraße und Rosenhofstraße angelegte Piazza, inoffiziell auch als Achidi-John-Platz bezeichnet [24], ist mit zahlreichen Gaststätten und Straßencafés belegt. Durch davon ausgehenden Lärm und Schmutz sowie die Einengungen der Bürgersteige durch herausgestellte Tische und Stühle entstehen Nutzungskonflikte zwischen Hausbewohnern, Gastronomen und Gästen.[25] Bebauung [Bearbeiten] Das Schulterblatt weist eine intensive Mischnutzung mit Wohnbebauung, zahlreichen, überwiegend kleinen bis mittleren Läden, Gastronomiebetrieben und Dienstleistungsfirmen auf. Die Erdgeschosse des vorderen Abschnitts bis zur Bahnbrücke sind nahezu durchgängig von Ladengeschäften belegt. Die Bebauung besteht aus unterschiedlichen Bautypen verschiedener Dekaden seit Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts. Seit Ende des 20. Jahrhunderts wurden, neben umfangreicher Sanierung, einige der älteren Häuser abgerissen und durch Neubauten ersetzt. Insgesamt sind in diesem Teil 25 Wohngeschäftshäuser unter Denkmalschutz gestellt, zudem der Hamburger Hof bei der Hausnummer 24 als Hinterhof-Ensemble sowie die Pianofabrik bei der Nummer 58 als Fabrikanlage. Den größten Teil dieser Unterschutzstellungen nehmen als Gesamtensemble die Gründerzeithäuser von vor der Einmündung der Susannenstraße bis zur Rosenhofstraße (Hausnummern 58a bis 86) ein, mitsamt weiteren Gebäuden in eben diesen Straßen.[9] Der Bereich hinter der Bahnbrücke Richtung Eimsbüttel wurde nach den Kriegszerstörungen neu strukturiert und ist hauptsächlich mit einer aufgelockerten Bebauung aus den 1960er Jahren belegt. Boardinghouse des Westens [Bearbeiten] Boardinghouse des Westens Beherrscht wird die rechte Straßenseite des ersten Abschnitts von dem langgezogenen Bau des Boardinghaus des Westens mit der Hausnummer 26-36. Auffällig sind die streng gegliederte Fassade und ein den Gehweg überkragender turmartiger Erkervorbau, der sich aus der spitzwinkligen Form des Grundstücks schräg zur Straßenachse ergab, die dem ehemaligen Grenzverlauf entspricht. Die für ein Wohnhaus untypische Architektur ist ein Ergebnis mehrerer Umplanungen infolge der Weltwirtschaftskrise.[26] Das Haus wurde 1930/1931 von den Architekten Rudolf Klophaus, August Schoch und Erich zu Putlitz für den Geschäftsmann C. Hinrichsen erbaut und galt als Sonderfall unter den Großwohnanlagen der zwanziger Jahre: ein bürgerliches Einküchenhaus sollte das Wohnen in der Stadt mit Gemeinschaftseinrichtungen und dem Service eines Hotels ermöglichen, die Wohnungen waren verschiedener Größe und konnten mit und ohne Bedienung oder Reinigung, auf längere oder kürzere Zeit gemietet werden, die Mieten wurden als hoch bezeichnet. Im Erdgeschoss befanden sich Läden.[27] Doch das Wohnexperiment scheiterte, bereits 1933 wurden Kleinwohnungen eingerichtet. 1941 erfolgte eine Umwandlung zum Verwaltungsgebäude und die Landesversicherungsanstalt zog ein. Von 1971 bis 1975 wurde es zur Unterbringung von damals so genannten Gastarbeitern genutzt. In den Jahren 1976 bis 1989 übernahm es die Firma Montblanc, die seit 1910 an der Schanzenstraße produzierte, als Kontorhaus.[28] In der Wendezeit wurde es kurzfristig für die Unterbringung von Aussiedlern der DDR genutzt, anschließend wieder für Bürozwecke vermietet. So ist es seit 1989 Hauptgeschäftssitz der Stadterneuerungsgesellschaft (STEG), bis 2007 war die Forschungsstelle für Zeitgeschichte in Hamburg (FZH) im oberen Stockwerk untergebracht. Pianoforte-Fabrik [Bearbeiten] Vorderhaus 58 der ehemaligen Pianofortefabrik mit den im Jahr 2009 aufgebauten Stockwerken Ein nicht von der Straße sichtbarer Gebäudekomplex des Schulterblatts ist der 1873 aus rotem Backstein errichtete Gewerbehof bei der Hausnummer 58, der mit seinem südlichen Bereich hinter dem Boardinghouse liegt. Er wurde von dem Architekten C.E. Hermann für Isermanns Pianoforte-Fabrik mit Werkstätten, Kontorhaus und Lager geplant und mehrmals erweitert. Um die drei Innenhöfe zogen später viele kleine Firmen ein, so eine Kautschukwäscherei, eine Maschinenfabrik und eine Gewürzmühle. 1908 wurde das Vorderhauses zum Wohnhaus umgebaut, 1910 ergänzte man die Hofanlagen um einen Mittelflügel. Im Jahr 1919 kam es zur Zwangsversteigerung, neue Eigentümerin wurde die Industria Grundstücksgesellschaft mbH. Ab 1942 waren im Block C Zwangsarbeiter untergebracht.[20] Das Vorderhaus wurde während des Zweiten Weltkriegs beschädigt und 1950 eingeschossig wieder aufgebaut. Im Jahr 2009 erfuhr es eine Aufstockung um weitere zwei Stockwerke, dabei verklinkerte man die Gesamtfassade, an benachbarte Gründerzeitbauten angepasst, mit klassischen Stilelementen. Der Innenhofkomplex war bereits Mitte der 1990er Jahre saniert worden, dabei riss man die südlich gelegenen Remisen ab und ersetzte sie durch Neubauten. Die Anlage wird weiterhin gewerblich, insbesondere durch Firmen der sogenannten Neuen Medien, teilweise aber auch zu Wohnzwecken genutzt. Hinterhöfe [Bearbeiten] Während die Straßenbebauung in weiten Teilen großzügige Wohngeschäftshäuser aufweist, entstanden im Blockinneren Hinterhöfe für Gewerbe- und Wohnnutzungen. Vor allem im vorderen Abschnitt der rechten Straßenseite, in dem Geviert Schulterblatt, Susannenstraße, Bartelsstraße und Schanzenstraße, ist ab Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts, teilweise schon vor der Randbebauung, ein verwinkeltes System von Hinterhäusern, Terrassen und Passagen entstanden.[17] Im südlichen Abschnitt befindet sich auf der rechten Seite hinter den Hausnummern 14 und 24 der sogenannte Hamburger Hof. Die beiden langgestreckten, drei- und viergeschossigen Putzriegel, erbaut zwischen 1869 und 1882, umschließen an der Nord- und Ostseite einen dreieckigen Platz, dessen unbebaute Seite durch eine Mauer auf der historischen Grenzlinie zwischen Hamburg und Altona geschlossen wird. Nördlich grenzt die Pianoforte-Fabrik an. Der Hof steht zusammen mit den von der Schanzenstraße zugänglichen Hinterhäusern der Bachterrasse (Hausnummer 41a) und Balkonterrasse (Hausnummer 35-37) als Ensemble unter Denkmalschutz. Sein Name ist darauf zurückzuführen, dass ein auf Hamburger Territorium gelegener Wohnhof allein über Altonaer Gebiet, jenseits der Stadtgrenzen, erschlossen war. Maßgebliche Auswirkungen hatte dies während der Choleraepidemie von 1892: während in dem, an das Altonaer Wassernetz angeschlossenen, Hamburger Hof mit damals 345 Bewohnern kein einziger Krankheitsfall auftrat, waren in den direkt angrenzenden, mit Hamburger Wasser versorgten Häusern hohe Opferzahlen zu beklagen.[29] Das Haus Schulterblatt 62 hat einen Durchgang zu einem Hofbereich, in dem sich ein großangelegter Spielplatz befindet, genannt BaSchu, der 1997 auf Elterninitiative hin entstanden ist. Er zieht sich durch den gesamten Innenblock und hat am anderen Ende einen Ausgang zur Bartelsstraße. Bis zu der Zerstörung im Bombenkrieg 1943 befand sich hier die größte Hinterhofterrasse des Schanzenviertels, der so genannte Millionenhof. Die Bezeichnung verwies mit leicht ironischem Anklang auf die enge und dunkle Bebauung mit zwei parallel verlaufende Hinterhausreihen vom Schulterblatt bis zur Bartelsstraße, in der „Millionen“ wohnten, die der ärmeren Bevölkerungsschicht angehörten. An der südlichen Seite zieht sich über 60 Meter die vierstöckige Backsteinfassade der Pianoforte-Fabrik, in dem anschließenden freien Bereich Richtung Ausgang Bartelsstraße, heute als Bolzplatz benutzt, schloss bis 1943 der kriegszerstörte nördliche Teil der Bachterrasse (Schanzenstraße 41a) an. Nördlich liegen weitere, heute noch erhaltene Hinterhöfe, die von der Susannenstraße aus zugänglich sind. Schulterblatt, Braunschweiger Hof Eine architektonische und historische Besonderheit ist der sogenannte Braunschweiger Hof auf der linken Straßenseite bei der Hausnummer 59. Es handelt sich um zwei Backsteinetagenbauten der Hannoverschen Bauschule, die für Altona ungewöhnlich und untypisch ist. Die Nordzeile, vom Durchgang aus rechts, ist ein 1873 erbautes Haus, das bei seiner Entstehung zur Juliusstraße hin frei stand und das Vorderhaus zu der 1875 errichteten Südzeile darstellte. Diese wiederum war über den Durchgang des Vorderhauses Schulterblatt Nr. 57/Nr. 61 zugänglich. Das Ensemble wies eine gemischte Wohn- und Gewerbenutzung auf, die rechte Zeile enthielt einen Bierkeller mit Zugang vom Hof, der 1896 umgebaut und mit einem Conditorofen ausgestattet wurde. In der linken waren Pferdeställe und eine Kutschenzimmerei im Erdgeschoss untergebracht. „Sowohl Erschließungstyp als auch Grundrißzuschnitte weisen auf Wohn- und Familienvorstellungen zurück, die ihre Wurzeln in vorindustriellen Wohnformen haben.“[17] Flora [Bearbeiten] → Hauptartikel: Rote Flora Flora-Theater, um 1900 Am Schulterblatt 71, im Abschnitt zwischen der Juliusstraße und der Eifflerstraße, befindet sich das ehemalige Concerthaus Flora, seit 1989 als Stadtteilzentrum besetzt und seitdem Rote Flora genannt. Das Gebäude wurde 1888 für die Kaufleute Theodor Mutzenbecher und Lerch als „Gesellschafts- und Concerthaus Flora“ erbaut. Zu dem Komplex gehörten zahlreiche Nebengebäude, wie der 1890 entstandene Crystallpalast, dessen Rückseite hinter den Häusern der Juliusstraße lag, und ein Ballsaal im hinteren Teil des Grundstücks, das bis an die Grundstücke der Friedensallee, die heutige Lippmannstraße, reichte. Verbunden waren die einzelnen Häuser durch zahlreiche offene Veranden und Gänge innerhalb des Flora-Gartens. Ab 1895 wurde es als Flora Theater weiter geführt, in dem zahlreiche beliebte Varieté-Aufführungen stattfanden. Ende der 1920er Jahre erweiterte man das Programm in der Hoffnung auf ein breiteres Publikum, so führte man z. B. Ringkämpfe vor. Ab 1936 erfolgte ein Umbau des hinteren Ballhauses zur Garagenhalle, in den Obergeschossen wurden Kleinwohnungen geschaffen. 1941 entstand im Flora-Garten ein Hochbunker für 700 Personen. Während des Zweiten Weltkriegs blieb die Flora weitgehend unbeschädigt. 1949 konnte sie nach einer geringfügigen Renovierung wieder eröffnen. Von 1953 bis 1964 diente das Gebäude als Kino mit 800 Plätzen. 1964 kaufte die Sprinkenhof AG als stadteigene Grundstücksgesellschaft das Gebäude und vermietete es an das Discountunternehmen 1000 Töpfe. 1974 trug man das Dachgeschoss und das zweite Obergeschoss ab und zog ein Flachdach auf. 1987 wurde das Gebäude dem Musical-Produzenten Friedrich Kurz an Hand gegeben, mit dem Ziel, dort ein Musical-Theater einzurichten. Gegen diese Pläne entstand ein vielfältiger Widerstand von Anwohnern, Gewerbetreibenden und autonomen Gruppen, die von einem derartigen Großprojekt eine Umstrukturierung des Viertels und damit einhergehende Mietsteigerungen befürchteten. Dennoch kam es ab April 1988 zum Abriss des größten Teils des Gebäudekomplexes, lediglich ein Rumpf des Eingangsgebäudes am Schulterblatt blieb erhalten. Doch zahlreiche Aktionen, eine Bauplatzbesetzung im Juni 1988 und permanentes Einreißen der Bauzäune führten im September 1988 dazu, dass trotz täglicher Polizeibewachung die Investoren das Musicalprojekt an diesem Standort aufgaben. Rote Flora, Juli 2007 Anschließend bemühten sich Initiativen aus dem Stadtteil um den Erhalt des Restgebäudes. Im August 1989 bot die Stadt den Initiativen überraschend einen befristeten sechswöchigen Nutzungsvertrag an, um die Vorstellung einer alternativen Nutzung öffentlich zu präsentieren. Die Gruppen nutzten diese Gelegenheit zur provisorischen Wiederherstellung der Ruine und eröffneten am 23. September 1989 die Rote Flora offiziell als Stadtteilzentrum. Nach Ablauf der sechs Wochen wurde die Flora am 1. November 1989 für besetzt erklärt. Seitdem wird das Gebäude als kultureller und politischer Treffpunkt genutzt. Es gibt keine bezahlten Stellen, keine Fördergelder, die Belange des Projekts werden im Rahmen der Selbstverwaltung organisiert. Ab 1992 fanden mehrmals Vertragsverhandlungen zwischen Stadt und Flora-Besetzern statt, jeweils unter den Vorzeichen, bei Nichtabschluss solle geräumt werden. Tatsächlich aber führten die Verhandlung zu keinem Ergebnis, die angedrohte Räumung wurde jedoch nicht vollzogen, die Rote Flora blieb besetzt. Im November 1995 brannte das obere Stockwerk durch einen technischen Defekt aus, die Besetzer konnten das Gebäude in Eigenarbeit und mit breiter Unterstützung wieder in Stand setzen. Im März 2001 verkaufte der Senat der Stadt Hamburg das Haus für 370.000 DM an den Immobilienkaufmann Klausmartin Kretschmer, der dabei zusicherte, am Status der Roten Flora nichts ändern zu wollen.[30] Aufmerksamkeit erregt die Flora zeitweilig durch groß angelegte Polizeiaktionen vor dem Hintergrund politischer Auseinandersetzungen oder den regelmäßig im Schanzenviertel stattfindenden Straßenfesten. Anlässlich des 20jährigen Bestehens der Roten Flora wurde im Herbst 2009 unter anderem ein Reihe von Veranstaltungen organisiert, die die Geschichte und die Perspektiven des Projekts thematisierten. In diesem Zusammenhang äußerte der Eigentümer Klausmartin Kretschmer in einem Interview, dass er die Zukunft des besetzten Hauses in Frage stelle und erstmalig eine Räumung in Betracht ziehe. Nach der Bürgerschaftswahl 2011 erklärte der neue Bürgermeister Olaf Scholz, dass er die Rote Flora erhalten wolle und nicht vorhabe, „an dem jetzigen Zustand im Großen und Ganzen etwas zu ändern.“[31] Belle Alliance [Bearbeiten] Das Belle Alliance an der Einmündung der Eimsbütteler Straße, um 1890 Der gleiche Ort im Jahr 2011 Ein im Krieg zerstörtes und nicht mehr aufgebautes, vormals weit bekanntes Etablissement war das Belle Alliance am Schulterblatt 115-119 / Ecke Eimsbütteler Straße 2. Sein Vorläufer, das Timm’sche Wirthshaus Belle Alliance wurde bereits 1827 in einem Hamburger Reiseführer von Professor Schütz erwähnt und insbesondere „der sehr angenehme Garten“ hervorgehoben. Der Namenszusatz war eine nach dem Sieg über Napoleon 1815 weit verbreitete Würdigung des preußischen Beitrags zu den Befreiungskriegen. Die 350 Meter weiter Richtung Eimsbüttel liegende und 1870 entstandene Bellealliancestraße wurde eben nach diesem Wirtshaus benannt. 1860 übernahm F.A. Stricker, ehemaliger Maurergeselle und Schankwirt in der Großen Freiheit, das Belle-Alliance, baute es mehrfach um und schließlich zu einem Hotel und Theater aus: „Er lockte mit Flügelball und ‚Orchestre parisien‘, Garten und Kegelkugelschieben. Ein Lustgarten also, der alle zwei bis sieben Jahre den Wirt wechselte, erweitert wurde und schließlich einen über tausend Quadratmeter großen Tanzsaal besaß. Rauschende Feste fanden hier statt, die nahe kolossale Flora stellte ‚La Belle Alliance‘ nicht in den Schatten.“[32] Zudem benutzte die Arbeiterbewegung das Haus bereits im 19. Jahrhundert als Versammlungsort, so wird zu einer von Korbmachern ausgegangenen Streikbewegung im Jahr 1868 berichtet: „Da man in Hamburg die Versammlungen verbietet, ziehen die Streikenden in langen Zügen, oft mit klingendem Spiel, durch Altona zum ‚Belle-Alliance‘ in Eimsbüttel“.[33] 1906 richtete Jeremias Henschel in dem großen Tanzsaal ein Theater lebender Photographien ein, im Volksmund Belle-Kino genannt. 1908 galt es mit etwa 1900 Plätzen als das größte Lichtspieltheater Hamburgs. 1911 und 1918 wurde es nochmals erweitert, die Leinwand auf 35 Quadratmeter vergrößert und Platz für ein Zwanzig-Mann-Orchester geschaffen.[34] 1924 schloss das Restaurant im Hause, das Kino bestand bis zum Zweiten Weltkrieg weiter. Das Haus wurde in der Nacht zum 25. Juli 1943 während der Operation Gomorrha zerstört. Seit den 1960er Jahren steht an seiner Stelle ein nüchterner siebenstöckiger Klinkerbau der Nachkriegsarchitektur. Öffentlicher Personennahverkehr [Bearbeiten] Das Schulterblatt wird von keinem öffentlichen Verkehrsmittel durchfahren, an der Kreuzung Max-Brauer-Allee/Altonaer Straße befindet sich jedoch eine Haltestelle der querenden Buslinie 15 des Hamburger Verkehrsverbundes (HVV), die von Altona hinunter zur Alsterchaussee fährt. Die nächstgelegene S-Bahn- und U-Bahn-Station Sternschanze ist von der Mitte des Schulterblattes aus etwa 300 bis 400 Meter Fußweg entfernt. Bahnhof Schulterblatt an der Hamburg-Altonaer Verbindungsbahn Von 1865 bis 1893 hatte die Straße mit dem Bahnhof Schulterblatt einen eigenen Zugang zur Verbindungsbahn. Er lag an der eigens dafür parallel zur Bahnlinie gebauten Parallelstraße (seit 1945 Eifflerstraße) und wurde einen Tag nach seiner Schließung durch die Eröffnung des Bahnhofs Holstenstraße ersetzt. Letzte Spuren des Bahnhofs Schulterblatt verschwanden im Jahr 2005 bei dem Neubau der Brücke über das Schulterblatt. Bis 1970 führten mehrere Straßenbahnlinien durch das Schulterblatt, zeitweise bis zu fünf Linien parallel. Die Hauptlinien befuhren dabei den Straßenzug vom Pferdemarkt bis zur Eimsbütteler Chaussee, die Altonaer Ringbahn von der Allee (heute Max-Brauer-Allee) bis zur Juliusstraße. Vorgänger der Straßenbahn war die Pferdebahn, die ab 1882, zunächst auf der Strecke der Ringbahn, eingesetzt wurde. Ab 1898 wurde sie nach und nach durch die elektrifizierten Bahnen ersetzt. Nach 1960 fuhren nur noch zeitweise (z. B. als Nachtlinie) einzelne Straßenbahnen durch das Schulterblatt.[35] Literatur [Bearbeiten] Projektgruppe Wohnen im Stadtteil: Der Schulterblatt. Ein Viertel verändert sich. Hamburg 1982 Hans-Günther Freitag/Hans-Werner Engels: Altona. Hamburgs schöne Schwester. Hamburg 1982 Frank Marocco January 2, 1931 – March 3, 2012 -- Frank Marocco Plays Cherokee - recently re-discovered footage of Frank playing with drummer Harold Jones from 10 years ago - Jon Hammond http://www.accordionradio.com/ Background http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Marocco Born in Joliet, Illinois Frank Marocco grew up in Waukegan, near Chicago. At the age of seven years, his parents enrolled him in a six-week beginner class for learning to play the accordion.[1] [edit]Education Marocco's first teacher was George Stefani, who supervised the young accordionist for nine years. Although they began studying classical music, Stefani soon encouraged young Frank to explore other musical genres. In addition to the accordion, Frank studied piano and clarinet, as well as music theory, harmony, and composition. Later on, he studied with Andy Rizzo, a well-known American concert accordionist and teacher.[1] [edit]Career At the age of 17, Frank Marocco won the first prize in the 1948 Chicago Musicland festival, and was rewarded with a guest performance with the Chicago Pops Orchestra playing Chopin's Fantasie Impromptu. His success encouraged him to embark on a professional music career. He established a trio, which toured in the Midwestern states. After he met his wife, Anne, in Indiana, the couple moved to Los Angeles, California,[1] in the early 1950s.[3] In the Los Angeles vicinity, Marocco created a new band, which toured hotels and clubs in Las Vegas, Lake Tahoe, and Palm Springs. Later on, he began working in Hollywood, where television studios and movie production companies provided him a successful career.[1] In the 1960s, Frank Marocco recorded a solo album released by Verve, a legendary jazz record label. In 1966, he worked together with Brian Wilson and the Beach Boys, and performed on the world-famous album Pet Sounds.[3] Marocco performed on a USO tour in Japan, South Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, Philippines, Guam, and other countries in the Pacific, appearing onstage with Bob Hope. He also played in the Les Brown big band, during six Love Boat cruises.[1] Marocco performed in collaboration with hundreds of world-famous artists and conductors during his career, both on stage as well as in studio. As a musician, he contributed to hundreds of movie soundtracks, television shows and TV-series. The National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences nominated him as the most valuable player eight years in a row.[2] In addition to his career as a musician, Marocco wrote and arranged music for solo, duet, and orchestra in a wide variety of musical styles, including jazz, popular standards, international, Latin, religious, and classical.[1] He was the musical director and conductor of an annual "music camp", the Frank Marocco Accordion Event, which is held in Mesa, Arizona in January. The event brings together over 50 accordionists from around the U.S. and Canada, who, after three full days of instruction, rehearsal, and recreational activities, present a full concert of accordion music. Frank Marocco also played with some of the best Jazz Musicians in America and Europe; Ray Brown, Jeff Hamilton, Zoot Sims, Joe Pass, Joey Baron, Herb Ellis, Ray Pizzi, Ivor Malherbe, Carlo Atti, Sam Most, Gian-Carlo Bianchetti, Jacob Fisher, Pekka Sarmanto, Martin Classen, Andy Martin, Tuomo Dahlblom, Ric Todd, Harold Jones, Gerry Gibbs, Mikko Hassinen, Conti Candoli, Philippe Cornaz, John Patitucci, Mats Vinding, Mogens Baekgaard Andersen, Marcel Papaux, Aage Tanggaard, Ron Feuer, Richard Galliano, Peter Erskine, Klaus Paier, Renzo Ruggieri, Massimo Tagliata, Pete Christlieb, Larry Koonse, Simone Zanchini, Andy Simpkins, Bob Shepard, Frank Rosolino, Jim Hall, Abraham Laboriel, Grant Geissman, Luis Conte and Stix Hooper just to name a few. [edit]Private life Frank and Anne Marocco had three daughters, Cynthia, Lisa and Venetia. Cynthia pursued a music career. She studied the flute and at age 13, had the distinction of being the youngest player in the American Youth Symphony, a group of high school and college musicians directed by Mehli Mehta. Lisa, attracted to dance, became a professional pair skater and toured for several seasons with the Ice Capades. Venetia was a physical Therapy instructor and is now a school teacher. The three Marocco daughters are married. Frank and Anne had eight grandchildren in all. Marocco died on March 3, 2012 at his home in California’s San Fer­nando Val­ley. He had been hos­pi­tal­ized ear­lier at Cedars-Sinai Med­ical Cen­ter in Los Ange­les for com­pli­ca­tions fol­low­ing hip replace­ment surgery, his daugh­ter Cyn­thia said.[4] He was 81 years old Hamburg Delphi Theater -- circa 1997 PICO (UA) - John Lennon/ Günter Zint L to R Salvatore Mertens aka PICO, Margit Reimann theater manager, Jon Hammond Regie: Judith Behrend / Delphi Theater Hamburg The musical Pico about the legendary times in STAR CLUB - where The Beatles played often, The Rattles, Little Richard, Lee Curtis, Brenda Lee, Jerry Lee Lewis, Fats Domino, The Everly Brothers, Bill Haley, Chubby Checker, Bo Diddley, The Searchers, Ray Charles, Screaming Lord Sutch, Johnnie and The Hurricanes, Tony Sheridan et al — at Delphi Show Palast Paris France -- Jon Hammond Broadcasting on Radio Tomate Pirate Radio Station in Paris France circa 1981 http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_Tomate Radio Tomate était une radio associative française créée en 1981. Alors que tombe le monopole d'État sur la radiodiffusion, le Centre d'Initiative pour de Nouveaux Espaces de Liberté (CINEL), dirigé notamment par le philosophe et psychanalyste Félix Guattari, participe à la création de Radio Tomate qui a pour objectif une « réappropriation individuelle collective et [...] un usage interactif des machines d'information, de communication, d'intelligence, d'art et de culture ». La radio est animée par des militants, notamment issus du mouvement autonome. Elle vise à ouvrir de nouveaux espaces de débat et d'information politiques, et à lutter contre la répression des mouvements sociaux. La première Radio Tomate ne dure que deux ans. Le projet est ensuite réactivé en 1988, toujours sur le principe de donner la parole aux personnes en lutte. L'antenne émet sur le 106.7 MHz en région parisienne, et partage la fréquence, et donc le temps d'antenne, avec plusieurs autres radios. Radio Tomate anime à l'époque cinq émissions, sur les questions du droit au logement, de la précarité, de la double peine, des luttes anti-carcérales (Parloir libre), et une émission punk. Lorsqu'émerge en 1991 le projet plus large d'une radio associative assumant une pleine fréquence, les animateurs de Radio Tomate décident de porter leur énergie sur la création de cette nouvelle antenne. Radio Tomate disparaît alors en 1992 pour donner naissance à Fréquence Paris Plurielle Paris France -- Circa 1981 - Jerry! Jon Hammond photo of Jerry Garcia at Grateful Dead concert in Paris France Grateful Dead Live at The Hippodrome on 1981-10-17 (October 17, 1981) http://archive.org/details/gd1981-10-17.sbd.macdonald.tetzeli.fix-7915.86854.reflac.flac16 Set 1: Shakedown Street > Minglewood Blues Candyman > Me & My Uncle Big River Althea > Little Red Rooster Brown Eyed Women Looks Like Rain Don't Ease Me In Set 2: Truckin' > Bird Song > Good Times > Estimated Prophet > Eyes Of The World > Drums > Space > Not Fade Away > Morning Dew Around And Around One More Saturday Night Encore: US Blues — with Jerry Garcia at Hippodrome De Paris-vincennes Downtown Chicago IL -- Jon Hammond night time in Chicago / Chicagoland, let me show you around the great City where I was born! http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago Chicago (i/ʃɪˈkɑːɡoʊ/ or /ʃɪˈkɔːɡoʊ/) is the largest city in Illinois and the third most-populous city in the United States. The city has approximately 2.7 million residents.[1] Its metropolitan area, sometimes called 'Chicagoland', is the third-largest in the United States,[4][5][6] with an estimated 9.8 million people. Chicago is the county seat of Cook County,[7] though a small portion also extends into DuPage County. Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837, near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed.[8] Today, Chicago is listed as an alpha+ global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, and ranks seventh in the world in the 2012 Global Cities Index. The city is an international hub for finance, commerce, industry, telecommunications, and transportation, with O'Hare International Airport being the second-busiest airport in the world in terms of traffic movements. In 2008, the city hosted 45.6 million domestic and overseas visitors.[9] Among metropolitan areas, Chicago has the fourth-largest Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the world, just behind Tokyo, New York City, and Los Angeles.[10] Chicago is one of the most important Worldwide Centers of Commerce and trade. Chicago's notability has found expression in numerous forms of popular culture, including novels, plays, movies, songs, various types of journals (for example, sports, entertainment, business, trade, and academic), and the news media. The city has many nicknames, which reflect the impressions and opinions about historical and contemporary Chicago. The best known include: "Chi-town", "Windy City," "Second City,"[n 1] and the "City of Big Shoulders. During the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples. The 1780s saw the arrival of the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago, Jean Baptiste Point du Sable, who is believed to be of Haitian and French descent.[12] In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area that was to be part of Chicago was turned over by some Native Americans in the Treaty of Greenville to the United States for a military post. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, which was destroyed in the War of 1812, Battle of Fort Dearborn. The Ottawa, Ojibwe, and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1804 Treaty of St. Louis. The Potawatomi were eventually forcibly removed from their land following the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of around 200 at that time.[13] Within seven years it would grow to a population of over 4,000. On the 15th day of June, 1835, the first public land sales commenced with Edmund Dick Taylor as U.S. receiver of public moneys. The City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837. The name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the Native American word shikaakwa, translated as "wild onion" or "wild garlic," from the Miami-Illinois language.[14][15][16][17] The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir written about the time.[18] The wild garlic plants, Allium tricoccum, were described by LaSalle's comrade, naturalist-diarist Henri Joutel, in his journal of LaSalle's last expedition.[19][20] State and Madison Streets, the busiest corner in Chicago (1897) As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city emerged as an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States. Chicago's first railway, Galena and Chicago Union Railroad, opened in 1848, which also marked the opening of the Illinois and Michigan Canal. The canal allowed steamboats and sailing ships on the Great Lakes to connect to the Mississippi River. A flourishing economy brought residents from rural communities and immigrants abroad. Manufacturing and retail sectors became dominant among Midwestern cities, influencing the American economy, particularly in meatpacking, with the advent of the refrigerated rail car and the regional centrality of the city's Union Stock Yards.[21] In the 1850s Chicago gained national political prominence as the home of Senator Stephen Douglas, the champion of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and "popular sovereignty" approach to the issue of the spread of slavery.[22] These issues also helped propel another Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the national stage. Lincoln was nominated in Chicago for the nation's presidency at the 1860 Republican National Convention and went on to defeat Douglas in the general election, setting the stage for the American Civil War. To accommodate rapid population growth and demand for better sanitation, the city implemented various infrastructural improvements. In February 1856, the Chesbrough plan for the building of the United States' first comprehensive sewerage system was approved by the Common Council.[23] The project raised much of central Chicago to a new grade. While raising Chicago, and at first improving the health of the city, the untreated sewage and industrial waste now flowed into the Chicago River, then into Lake Michigan, polluting the primary source of fresh water for the city. The city responded by tunneling two miles (3 km) out into Lake Michigan to newly built water cribs. In 1900, the problem of sewage contamination was largely resolved when the city reversed the flow of the Chicago River so that it flowed away from Lake Michigan, rather than into it. This project began with the construction and improvement of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, and was completed with the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal that connects to the Illinois River, which flows into the Mississippi River. Artist's rendering of the Great Chicago Fire of 1871 In 1871, the Great Chicago Fire broke out, destroying an area of about 4 miles long and 1 mile wide, a large section of the city at the time. Much of the city, including railroads and stockyards, survived intact, and from the ruins of the previous wooden structures arose more modern constructions of steel and stone which would set the precedent for worldwide construction.[24] During its rebuilding period, Chicago constructed the world's first skyscraper in 1885, using steel-skeleton construction.[25] Chicago's flourishing economy attracted huge numbers of new immigrants from Europe and migrants from the eastern states. Of the total population in 1900 not less than 77% were foreign-born, or born in the United States of foreign parentage. Germans, Irish,Poles, Swedes and Czechs made up nearly two-thirds of the foreign-born population (by 1900, whites were 98.1% of the city's population).[26][27] Labor conflicts followed the industrial boom and the rapid expansion of the labor pool, including the Haymarket affair on May 4, 1886. Concern for social problems among Chicago's immigrant poor led Jane Addams to co-found Hull House in 1889. Programs developed there became a model for the new field of social work. During the 1870s and 1880s, Chicago attained national stature as the leader in the movement to improve public health. City, and later state laws, that upgraded standards for the medical profession and fought urban epidemics of cholera, small pox, and yellow fever were not only passed, but also enforced. These in turn became templates for public health reform in many other cities and states.[28] The city invested in many large, well-landscaped municipal parks, which also included public sanitation facilities. The chief advocate and driving force for improving public health in Chicago was Dr. John H. Rauch, M.D., who established a plan for Chicago's park system in 1866, created Lincoln Park by closing a cemetery filled with festering, shallow graves, and helped establish a new Chicago Board of Health in 1867 in response to an outbreak of cholera. Ten years later he became the secretary and then the president of the first Illinois State Board of Health, which carried out most of its activities in Chicago.[29] In the 19th century, Chicago became the nation's railroad center, a title it still holds. In 1883, the standardized system of North American Time Zones was adopted by the general time convention of railway managers in Chicago.[30] This gave the continent its uniform system for telling time. In 1893, Chicago hosted the World's Columbian Exposition on former marshland at the present location of Jackson Park. The Exposition drew 27.5 million visitors, and is considered the most influential world's fair in history.[31] The University of Chicago was founded in 1892 on the same South Side location. The term "midway" for a fair or carnival referred originally to the Midway Plaisance, a strip of park land that still runs through the University of Chicago campus and connects Washington and Jackson Parks. Men outside a soup kitchen in Chicago during the Great Depression (1931) [edit]20th and 21st centuries The capsizing of the Eastland steamer on the Chicago River in 1915 was Chicago's worst disaster, claiming 844 lives.[32] The 1920s saw gangsters, including Al Capone, battle law enforcement and each other on the streets of Chicago during the Prohibition era.[33] In 1924, Chicago was the first American city to have a homosexual-rights organization, the Society for Human Rights. This organization produced the first American publication for gays, Friendship and Freedom. The 1920s also saw a major expansion in industry. The availability of jobs attracted blacks from the South. Between 1910 and 1930, the black population of Chicago dramatically increased from 44,103 to 233,903.[34] Arriving in the hundreds of thousands during the Great Migration, the newcomers had an immense cultural impact. It was during this wave that Chicago became a center for jazz, with King Oliver leading the way.[35] In 1933, Chicago Mayor Anton Cermak was fatally wounded in Miami, Florida during a failed assassination attempt on President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt. In 1933 and 1934, the city celebrated its centennial by hosting the Century of Progress International Exposition Worlds Fair.[36] The theme of the fair was technological innovation over the century since Chicago's founding.[37] The Chicago River is the south border (right) of the Near North Side and Streeterville and the north border (left) of Chicago Loop, Lakeshore East and Illinois Center (from Lake Shore Drive's Link Bridge with Trump International Hotel and Tower at jog in the river in the center) On December 2, 1942, physicist Enrico Fermi conducted the world's first controlled nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago as part of the top-secret Manhattan Project. This led to the creation of the atomic bomb by the United States, which it used in World War II in 1945. Mayor Richard J. Daley, a democrat, was elected in 1955, in the era of machine politics. Starting in the early 1960s due to blockbusting, many white residents, as in most American cities, left the city for the suburbs. Whole neighborhoods were completely changed based on race. Structural changes in industry caused heavy losses of jobs for lower skilled workers. In 1966, James Bevel, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Albert Raby led the Chicago Open Housing Movement, which culminated in agreements between Mayor Richard J. Daley and the movement leaders. Two years later, the city hosted the tumultuous 1968 Democratic National Convention, which featured physical confrontations both inside and outside the convention hall, including full-scale riots, or in some cases police riots, in city streets. Major construction projects, including the Sears Tower (now known as the Willis Tower, which in 1974 became the world's tallest building), University of Illinois at Chicago, McCormick Place, and O'Hare International Airport, were undertaken during Richard J. Daley's tenure. In 1979, Jane Byrne, the city's first female mayor, was elected. She popularized the city further as a movie location and tourist destination. In 1983, Harold Washington became the first black mayor of the city of Chicago. Washington's first term in office saw attention given to poor and previously neglected minority neighborhoods. He was re-elected in 1987 but died of a heart attack a short time later. The balance of Washington's second term was served by 6th ward Alderman Eugene Sawyer. Richard M. Daley, son of Richard J. Daley, was elected in 1989. His accomplishments included improvements to parks and creating incentives for sustainable development. After successfully standing for re-election five times, and becoming Chicago's longest serving mayor, Richard M. Daley announced he would step down at the end of his final term in 2011. On February 23, 2011, former Illinois Congressman and White House Chief of Staff, Rahm Emanuel, won the municipal election to become mayor of Chicago, heavily beating five rivals with 55 percent of the vote.[38] Emanuel was sworn in as Mayor on May 16, 2011. [edit]Geography Main article: Geography of Chicago [edit]Topography Aerial view of Lake Shore Drive headed south toward the Loop Chicago is located in northeastern Illinois at the southwestern tip of Lake Michigan. It is the principal city in Chicago Metropolitan Area situated in the Midwestern United States and the Great Lakes region. Chicago rests on a continental divide at the site of the Chicago Portage, connecting the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes watersheds. The city lies beside freshwater Lake Michigan, and two rivers— the Chicago River in downtown and the Calumet River in the industrial far South Side – flow entirely or partially through Chicago. The Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal connects the Chicago River with the Des Plaines River, which runs to the west of the city. Chicago's history and economy are closely tied to its proximity to Lake Michigan. While the Chicago River historically handled much of the region's waterborne cargo, today's huge lake freighters use the city's Lake Calumet Harbor on the South Side. The lake also provides another positive effect, moderating Chicago's climate; making waterfront neighborhoods slightly warmer in winter and cooler in summer. When Chicago was founded in 1833, most of the early building began around the mouth of the Chicago River, as can be seen on a map of the city's original 58 blocks.[39] The overall grade of the city's central, built-up areas, is relatively consistent with the natural flatness of its overall natural geography, generally exhibiting only slight differentiation otherwise. The average land elevation is 579 ft (176 m) above sea level. The lowest points are along the lake shore at 577 ft (176 m), while the highest point, at 735 ft (224 m), is a landfill located in the Hegewisch community area on the city's far south side. Chicago Half Marathon on Lake Shore Drive next to Harold Washington Park on the South Side The Chicago Loop is the central business district, but Chicago is also a city of neighborhoods. Lake Shore Drive runs adjacent to a large portion of Chicago's lakefront. Some of the parks along the waterfront include Lincoln Park, Grant Park, Burnham Park and Jackson Park. 29 public beaches are also found along the shore. Landfill extends into portions of the lake providing space for Navy Pier, Northerly Island, the Museum Campus, and large portions of the McCormick Place Convention Center. Most of the city's high-rise commercial and residential buildings can be found close to the waterfront. An informal name for the Chicago metropolitan area is Chicagoland, used primarily by copywriters, advertising agencies, and traffic reporters. There is no precise definition for the term "Chicagoland," but it generally means the city and its suburbs together. The Chicago Tribune, which coined the term, includes the city of Chicago, the rest of Cook County, eight nearby Illinois counties: Lake, McHenry, DuPage, Kane, Kendall, Grundy, Will and Kankakee, and three counties in Indiana: Lake, Porter and LaPorte.[40] The Illinois Department of Tourism defines Chicagoland as Cook County without the city of Chicago, and only Lake, DuPage, Kane and Will counties.[41] The Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce defines it as all of Cook and DuPage, Kane, Lake, McHenry and Will counties.[42] Chicago Harbor Lighthouse [edit]Climate Main article: Climate of Chicago The city lies within the humid continental climate zone, and experiences four distinct seasons. Summers are hot and humid, with a July daily average of 84.7 °F (29.3 °C). In a normal summer, temperatures exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on 21 days.[43] Winters are cold, snowy, and windy, with some sunny days, and with a January average of 23.5 °F (−4.7 °C). Temperatures often (43 days) stay below freezing for an entire day, and lows below 0 °F (−18 °C) occur on eight nights per year.[43] Spring and Autumn are mild seasons with low humidity. According to the National Weather Service, Chicago's highest official temperature reading of 107 °F (42 °C) was recorded on June 1, 1934, and July 11, 1936, both at Midway Airport. The lowest temperature of −27 °F (−33 °C) was recorded on January 20, 1985,[43] at O'Hare Airport. The city can experience extreme winter cold waves and summer heat waves that may last for several consecutive days. Severe weather is also common in the Chicago area, such as the F4 tornado that devastated the south side of the city on April 21, 1967. — at Downtown Chicago Musikmesse Frankfurt -- Brothers from different Mothers! Jon Hammond and "Tachi" Waichiro Tachikawa - making some big International Hammond Suzuki Action for years! *New and Improved / Older Wiser - JH — with Waichiro Tachikawa at musikmesse New York NY -- Junior Mance Duo with Hide Tanaka. Happy to report Jazz Piano Great JUNIOR MANCE is back on the gig and back on the scene. Extensive Junior Mance Interview with Jon Hammond in 5 parts now online HammondCast *WATCH THE VIDEO HERE: http://archive.org/details/JonHammondJuniorManceonHammondCastPt1of4_0 Junior Mance http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junior_Mance Julian Clifford Mance, Jr. (k...See More — with Junior Mance and Hide Tanaka at Cafe Loup New York NY -- Happy to report Jazz Piano Great JUNIOR MANCE is back on the gig and back on the scene. *Here with Jon Hammond at his regular gig and hang - Cafe' Loup in The Village Sunday nights. Extensive Junior Mance Interview with Jon Hammond in 5 parts now online HammondCast *WATCH THE VIDEO HERE: http://archive.org/details/JonHammondJuniorManceonHammondCastPt1of4_0 Junior Mance http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junior_Mance Julian Clifford Mance, Jr. (known as Junior Mance, born 10 October 1928, Evanston, Illinois) is an American jazz pianist and composer. Biography Junior Mance began playing the piano at the age of five, but did not begin formal training until the age of eight. He started playing professionally during his early teens. He attended Roosevelt College in Chicago as a music major. In 1947 Mance left Roosevelt College to join Gene Ammons' band and began his recording career with Gene. He joined Lester Young in 1949 for almost two years, and rejoined Ammons several months in 1951 before being drafted into the U. S. Army. He served in the 36th Army Band at Fort Knox, Kentucky along with Julian "Cannonball" Adderley. After his discharge from the Army in 1953, he became part of the house rhythm section at the Bee Hive Jazz Club in Chicago for a year, and accompanied musicians such as Charlie Parker, Coleman Hawkins, Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis, Sonny Stitt, and many others. In 1954 Mance joined and toured with Dinah Washington. Among the numerous recordings he made with her, there are two that really stand out in his memory: Dinah Jams and Jam Session. They are two live albums also featuring Clifford Brown, Max Roach, Clark Terry, Maynard Ferguson, Herb Geller, Harold Land, Keter Betts, George Morrow, Richie Powell. In 1956 he reunited with Cannonball Adderley, becoming a member of Cannonball's first organized working band. The band did a series of recordings on Mercury Records. Junior joined Dizzy Gillespie's band in 1958, a period Junior considers one of the highlights of his career. Besides the joy and fun of playing with Dizzy, he remembers this period as a great learning experience in musicianship, showmanship, and just about everything related to the business of music. In 1961 Junior decided to form his own trio, following the release of his first recording as a leader. (Junior, Verve Records) In between gigs with his trio, with bassist Ben Tucker and Bobby Thomas on drums, he played and recorded with the Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis/Johnny Griffin Quintet. With his trio he also accompanied singer Joe Williams in 1963/64. In 1988 Junior became a member of the faculty at The New School for Jazz and Contemporary Music in New York City. He teaches classes in Blues, Ballads, and also private lessons. During the 1990s Junior has been part of a very elite group called "100 Gold Fingers". This is a group which tours Japan every other year, consisting of ten outstanding jazz pianists. On various tours the group has included people such as Hank Jones, John Lewis, Tommy Flanagan, Kenny Barron, Ray Bryant, Roger Kellaway, Gene Harris, Marian McPartland, Barry Harris, Toshiko Akiyoshi, Lynne Arriale, Cyrus Chestnut, Benny Green, Duke Jordan, Joanne Brackeen, Monty Alexander, Dave McKenna, Renee Rosnes, Mulgrew Miller, Harold Mabern as well as Junior and a rhythm section consisting of bassist Bob Cranshaw and either Alan Dawson or Grady Tate on drums. On November 21, 1997, at Tampa, Florida, Junior was inducted into the International Jazz Hall of Fame, an honor Junior is extremely proud of, being in the elite company of many of his heroes, both past and present. Mance made his solo piano debut at Lincoln Center at the Kaplan Penthouse on October 5–7 of 2000. The Junior Mance Trio (Jackie Williams, Hide Tanaka, and guest vocalist José James) released their first CD, Live At Cafe Loup, in 2007. Junior is still very active in NYC, Japan, and all over the world. — with Junior Mance at Cafe Loup Children's Fairyland Oakland California -- The Old Woman in the Shoe (famous) meets Jon Hammond in the Shoe! *Note: Adults must be accompanied by a child or children to get in there. This is the place where Walt Disney got his original inspiration to build Disneyland. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Children%27s_Fairyland Children's Fairyland, U.S.A. is the first theme park in the United States created to cater to families with young children. Located in Oakland, California on the shore of Lake Merritt, Fairyland includes 10 acres (40,000 m2) of play sets, small rides, and animals. The park is also home to the Open Storybook Puppet Theater, the oldest continuously operating puppet theater in the United States. Fairyland was built in 1950 by the Oakland Lake Merritt Breakfast Club. The sets were designed by artist and architect William Russell Everritt. The park was nationally recognized for its unique value, and during the City Beautiful movement of the 1950s it inspired numerous towns to create their own parks. Contrary to popular belief that Fairyland served as an inspiration for Disneyland, there is no evidence that Walt Disney or his designers ever visited the park.[ Numerous artists have contributed exhibits, murals, puppetry, and sculptures to the park. Some of the better-known artists are Ruth Asawa and Frank Oz. The park has rides like the spiderweb Ferris wheel, carousels and the Jolly Trolly (a train). For safety reasons, Fairyland admits adults only when they’re accompanied by children and children only when they’re accompanied by adults. Origins of the park On a 1947 trip to the Detroit children's zoo in Belle Isle Park, Oakland nurseryman Arthur Navlet saw a collection of small nursery rhyme themed buildings, and wanted to create something similar in Oakland's Lake Merritt Park. His hope, though, was to create much larger sets that children could climb in and interact with. After getting the backing of the Lake Merritt Breakfast Club, a civic organization devoted to improving the park, he took his ideas to William Penn Mott, Jr., then director of Oakland's parks department. Mott and the Breakfast Club were able to raise $50,000 from Oakland citizens among the sponsors: Earl Warren, Clifford E. Rishell, Joseph R. Knowland and Thomas E. Caldecott to create the park. Navlet hired fantasy architect William Russell Everritt to design the original 17 sets. Everritt originally presented models which followed a standard fantasy architecture: straight-sided, "precious" buildings in gingerbread and candy. When told his models were too staid, he delightedly destroyed them and came back with buildings with no straight sides and outre colors and textures. It was exactly what Navlet was looking for. [edit]The original park The park opened on September 2, 1950. Admission was 9 to 14 cents, depending on age. The original guides to the park were a dwarfish married couple dressed in glamorous Munchkin-style costumes. The park was reported on nationally, with numerous newsreels shot in the park. The original sets included Pinocchio's Castle, Thumbelina, Three Billy Goats Gruff, The Merry Miller, The Three Little Pigs, Willie the Whale, and several others. The entrance to the park was the shoe from The Old Woman in the Shoe. The entrance through the shoe was sized for children so that adults had to bend over to go through. The park continued to grow through the early years, adding the Open Storybook Puppet Theater, also designed by Everritt, in 1956, as well as other sets. Another important addition were the Fairyland Talking Storybooks and Magic Keys. Oakland television personality Bruce Sedley would often make appearances at the park to tell the stories of the sets. The constant strain of speaking threatened his voice, and he invented a system of talking books with recorded stories on tape. The boxes were activated by a plastic key. Sedley took the system he developed at Fairyland to zoos and children's parks across the country, where they are still used extensively. [edit]Children's Theater Programs Every year Fairyland has plays put on by local kids ages 8–10. The past 2005 shows were The Monkey King's Journey to the West, Brer Rabbit, and the classic The Wizard of Oz. The past 2006 shows were Cuoi, the Boy in the Moon, Ohana Means Family, and Little Red Riding-Hood, Lost in Fairyland. The 2007 shows were Hip-Hop Pinocchio, The Panchatantra, and Méxica. The 2008 shows are Aesop's Fables, The Girl Who Lost Her Smile, and Harvest at the Lake; the 2008 season is the first on Fairyland's new Aesop's Playhouse, a dedicated children's theater funded by Oakland City bond measure DD. In 2006, Children's Fairyland's Open Storybook Puppet Theater celebrated its 50th Anniversary with a near-complete renovation including the addition of a new facade and workshop. — at Children’s Fairyland Jon Hammond playing XK-1 Hammond Organ for my friends with Alzheimer's disease and memory impaired folks - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alzheimers Alzheimer's disease (AD), also known in medical literature as Alzheimer disease, is the most common form of dementia. There is no cure for the disease, which worsens as it progresses, and eventually leads to death. It was first described by German psychiatrist and neuropathologist Alois Alzheimer in 1906 and was named after him.[1] Most often, AD is diagnosed in people over 65 years of age,[2] although the less-prevalent early-onset Alzheimer's can occur much earlier. In 2006, there were 26.6 million sufferers worldwide. Alzheimer's is predicted to affect 1 in 85 people globally by 2050.[3] Although Alzheimer's disease develops differently for every individual, there are many common symptoms.[4] Early symptoms are often mistakenly thought to be 'age-related' concerns, or manifestations of stress.[5] In the early stages, the most common symptom is difficulty in remembering recent events. When AD is suspected, the diagnosis is usually confirmed with tests that evaluate behaviour and thinking abilities, often followed by a brain scan if available.[6] As the disease advances, symptoms can include confusion, irritability and aggression, mood swings, trouble with language, and long-term memory loss. As the sufferer declines they often withdraw from family and society.[5][7] Gradually, bodily functions are lost, ultimately leading to death.[8] Since the disease is different for each individual, predicting how it will affect the person is difficult. AD develops for an unknown and variable amount of time before becoming fully apparent, and it can progress undiagnosed for years. On average, the life expectancy following diagnosis is approximately seven years.[9] Fewer than three percent of individuals live more than fourteen years after diagnosis.[10] The cause and progression of Alzheimer's disease are not well understood. Research indicates that the disease is associated with plaques and tangles in the brain.[11] Current treatments only help with the symptoms of the disease. There are no available treatments that stop or reverse the progression of the disease. As of 2012, more than 1000 clinical trials have been or are being conducted to find ways to treat the disease, but it is unknown if any of the tested treatments will work.[12] Mental stimulation, exercise, and a balanced diet have been suggested as ways to delay symptoms in healthy older individuals, but there is no conclusive evidence supporting an effect.[13] Because AD cannot be cured and is degenerative, the sufferer relies on others for assistance. The role of the main caregiver is often taken by the spouse or a close relative.[14] Alzheimer's disease is known for placing a great burden on caregivers; the pressures can be wide-ranging, involving social, psychological, physical, and economic elements of the caregiver's life.[15][16][17] In developed countries, AD is one of the most costly diseases to society. The disease course is divided into four stages, with progressive patterns of cognitive and functional impairments. Pre-dementia The first symptoms are often mistakenly attributed to ageing or stress.[5] Detailed neuropsychological testing can reveal mild cognitive difficulties up to eight years before a person fulfils the clinical criteria for diagnosis of AD.[20] These early symptoms can affect the most complex daily living activities.[21] The most noticeable deficit is memory loss, which shows up as difficulty in remembering recently learned facts and inability to acquire new information.[20][22] Subtle problems with the executive functions of attentiveness, planning, flexibility, and abstract thinking, or impairments in semantic memory (memory of meanings, and concept relationships) can also be symptomatic of the early stages of AD.[20] Apathy can be observed at this stage, and remains the most persistent neuropsychiatric symptom throughout the course of the disease.[23] The preclinical stage of the disease has also been termed mild cognitive impairment,[22] but whether this term corresponds to a different diagnostic stage or identifies the first step of AD is a matter of dispute.[24] Early In people with AD the increasing impairment of learning and memory eventually leads to a definitive diagnosis. In a small portion of them, difficulties with language, executive functions, perception (agnosia), or execution of movements (apraxia) are more prominent than memory problems.[25] AD does not affect all memory capacities equally. Older memories of the person's life (episodic memory), facts learned (semantic memory), and implicit memory (the memory of the body on how to do things, such as using a fork to eat) are affected to a lesser degree than new facts or memories.[26][27] Language problems are mainly characterised by a shrinking vocabulary and decreased word fluency, which lead to a general impoverishment of oral and written language.[25][28] In this stage, the person with Alzheimer's is usually capable of communicating basic ideas adequately.[25][28][29] While performing fine motor tasks such as writing, drawing or dressing, certain movement coordination and planning difficulties (apraxia) may be present but they are commonly unnoticed.[25] As the disease progresses, people with AD can often continue to perform many tasks independently, but may need assistance or supervision with the most cognitively demanding activities.[25] Moderate Progressive deterioration eventually hinders independence, with subjects being unable to perform most common activities of daily living.[25] Speech difficulties become evident due to an inability to recall vocabulary, which leads to frequent incorrect word substitutions (paraphasias). Reading and writing skills are also progressively lost.[25][29] Complex motor sequences become less coordinated as time passes and AD progresses, so the risk of falling increases.[25] During this phase, memory problems worsen, and the person may fail to recognise close relatives.[25] Long-term memory, which was previously intact, becomes impaired.[25] Behavioural and neuropsychiatric changes become more prevalent. Common manifestations are wandering, irritability and labile affect, leading to crying, outbursts of unpremeditated aggression, or resistance to caregiving.[25] Sundowning can also appear.[30] Approximately 30% of people with AD develop illusionary misidentifications and other delusional symptoms.[25] Subjects also lose insight of their disease process and limitations (anosognosia).[25] Urinary incontinence can develop.[25] These symptoms create stress for relatives and caretakers, which can be reduced by moving the person from home care to other long-term care facilities.[25][31] Advanced During the final stage of AD, the person is completely dependent upon caregivers.[25] Language is reduced to simple phrases or even single words, eventually leading to complete loss of speech.[25][29] Despite the loss of verbal language abilities, people can often understand and return emotional signals.[25] Although aggressiveness can still be present, extreme apathy and exhaustion are much more common results.[25] People with AD will ultimately not be able to perform even the simplest tasks without assistance.[25] Muscle mass and mobility deteriorate to the point where they are bedridden, and they lose the ability to feed themselves.[25] AD is a terminal illness, with the cause of death typically being an external factor, such as infection of pressure ulcers or pneumonia, not the disease itself.[25] Cause Microscopy image of a neurofibrillary tangle, conformed by hyperphosphorylated tau protein The cause for most Alzheimer's cases is still essentially unknown[32][33] (except for 1% to 5% of cases where genetic differences have been identified). Several competing hypotheses exist trying to explain the cause of the disease. The oldest, on which most currently available drug therapies are based, is the cholinergic hypothesis,[34] which proposes that AD is caused by reduced synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The cholinergic hypothesis has not maintained widespread support, largely because medications intended to treat acetylcholine deficiency have not been very effective. Other cholinergic effects have also been proposed, for example, initiation of large-scale aggregation of amyloid,[35] leading to generalised neuroinflammation.[36] In 1991, the amyloid hypothesis postulated that amyloid beta (Aβ) deposits are the fundamental cause of the disease.[37][38] Support for this postulate comes from the location of the gene for the amyloid beta precursor protein (APP) on chromosome 21, together with the fact that people with trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome) who have an extra gene copy almost universally exhibit AD by 40 years of age.[39][40] Also APOE4, the major genetic risk factor for AD, leads to excess amyloid buildup in the brain.[41] Further evidence comes from the finding that transgenic mice that express a mutant form of the human APP gene develop fibrillar amyloid plaques and Alzheimer's-like brain pathology with spatial learning deficits.[42] An experimental vaccine was found to clear the amyloid plaques in early human trials, but it did not have any significant effect on dementia.[43] Researchers have been led to suspect non-plaque Aβ oligomers (aggregates of many monomers) as the primary pathogenic form of Aβ. These toxic oligomers, also referred to as amyloid-derived diffusible ligands (ADDLs), bind to a surface receptor on neurons and change the structure of the synapse, thereby disrupting neuronal communication.[44] One receptor for Aβ oligomers may be the prion protein, the same protein that has been linked to mad cow disease and the related human condition, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, thus potentially linking the underlying mechanism of these neurodegenerative disorders with that of Alzheimer's disease.[45] In 2009, this theory was updated, suggesting that a close relative of the beta-amyloid protein, and not necessarily the beta-amyloid itself, may be a major culprit in the disease. The theory holds that an amyloid-related mechanism that prunes neuronal connections in the brain in the fast-growth phase of early life may be triggered by ageing-related processes in later life to cause the neuronal withering of Alzheimer's disease.[46] N-APP, a fragment of APP from the peptide's N-terminus, is adjacent to beta-amyloid and is cleaved from APP by one of the same enzymes. N-APP triggers the self-destruct pathway by binding to a neuronal receptor called death receptor 6 (DR6, also known as TNFRSF21).[46] DR6 is highly expressed in the human brain regions most affected by Alzheimer's, so it is possible that the N-APP/DR6 pathway might be hijacked in the ageing brain to cause damage. In this model, beta-amyloid plays a complementary role, by depressing synaptic function. A 2004 study found that deposition of amyloid plaques does not correlate well with neuron loss.[47] This observation supports the tau hypothesis, the idea that tau protein abnormalities initiate the disease cascade.[38] In this model, hyperphosphorylated tau begins to pair with other threads of tau. Eventually, they form neurofibrillary tangles inside nerve cell bodies.[48] When this occurs, the microtubules disintegrate, collapsing the neuron's transport system.[49] This may result first in malfunctions in biochemical communication between neurons and later in the death of the cells.[50] Herpes simplex virus type 1 has also been proposed to play a causative role in people carrying the susceptible versions of the apoE gene.[51] Another hypothesis asserts that the disease may be caused by age-related myelin breakdown in the brain. Iron released during myelin breakdown is hypothesised to cause further damage. Homeostatic myelin repair processes contribute to the development of proteinaceous deposits such as amyloid-beta and tau.[52][53][54] Oxidative stress and dys-homeostasis of biometal (biology) metabolism may be significant in the formation of the pathology.[55][56] AD individuals show 70% loss of locus coeruleus cells that provide norepinephrine (in addition to its neurotransmitter role) that locally diffuses from "varicosities" as an endogenous antiinflammatory agent in the microenvironment around the neurons, glial cells, and blood vessels in the neocortex and hippocampus.[57] It has been shown that norepinephrine stimulates mouse microglia to suppress Aβ-induced production of cytokines and their phagocytosis of Aβ.[57] This suggests that degeneration of the locus ceruleus might be responsible for increased Aβ deposition in AD brains.[57] Pathophysiology Main article: Biochemistry of Alzheimer's disease Histopathologic image of senile plaques seen in the cerebral cortex of a person with Alzheimer's disease of presenile onset. Silver impregnation. Neuropathology Alzheimer's disease is characterised by loss of neurons and synapses in the cerebral cortex and certain subcortical regions. This loss results in gross atrophy of the affected regions, including degeneration in the temporal lobe and parietal lobe, and parts of the frontal cortex and cingulate gyrus.[36] Studies using MRI and PET have documented reductions in the size of specific brain regions in people with AD as they progressed from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease, and in comparison with similar images from healthy older adults.[58][59] Both amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are clearly visible by microscopy in brains of those afflicted by AD.[11] Plaques are dense, mostly insoluble deposits of amyloid-beta peptide and cellular material outside and around neurons. Tangles (neurofibrillary tangles) are aggregates of the microtubule-associated protein tau which has become hyperphosphorylated and accumulate inside the cells themselves. Although many older individuals develop some plaques and tangles as a consequence of ageing, the brains of people with AD have a greater number of them in specific brain regions such as the temporal lobe.[60] Lewy bodies are not rare in the brains of people with AD.[61] Biochemistry Enzymes act on the APP (amyloid precursor protein) and cut it into fragments. The beta-amyloid fragment is crucial in the formation of senile plaques in AD. Alzheimer's disease has been identified as a protein misfolding disease (proteopathy), caused by accumulation of abnormally folded A-beta and tau proteins in the brain.[62] Plaques are made up of small peptides, 39–43 amino acids in length, called beta-amyloid (also written as A-beta or Aβ). Beta-amyloid is a fragment from a larger protein called amyloid precursor protein (APP), a transmembrane protein that penetrates through the neuron's membrane. APP is critical to neuron growth, survival and post-injury repair.[63][64] In Alzheimer's disease, an unknown process causes APP to be divided into smaller fragments by enzymes through proteolysis.[65] One of these fragments gives rise to fibrils of beta-amyloid, which form clumps that deposit outside neurons in dense formations known as senile plaques.[11][66] In Alzheimer's disease, changes in tau protein lead to the disintegration of microtubules in brain cells. AD is also considered a tauopathy due to abnormal aggregation of the tau protein. Every neuron has a cytoskeleton, an internal support structure partly made up of structures called microtubules. These microtubules act like tracks, guiding nutrients and molecules from the body of the cell to the ends of the axon and back. A protein called tau stabilises the microtubules when phosphorylated, and is therefore called a microtubule-associated protein. In AD, tau undergoes chemical changes, becoming hyperphosphorylated; it then begins to pair with other threads, creating neurofibrillary tangles and disintegrating the neuron's transport system.[67] Disease mechanism Exactly how disturbances of production and aggregation of the beta amyloid peptide gives rise to the pathology of AD is not known.[68] The amyloid hypothesis traditionally points to the accumulation of beta amyloid peptides as the central event triggering neuron degeneration. Accumulation of aggregated amyloid fibrils, which are believed to be the toxic form of the protein responsible for disrupting the cell's calcium ion homeostasis, induces programmed cell death (apoptosis).[69] It is also known that Aβ selectively builds up in the mitochondria in the cells of Alzheimer's-affected brains, and it also inhibits certain enzyme functions and the utilisation of glucose by neurons.[70] Various inflammatory processes and cytokines may also have a role in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Inflammation is a general marker of tissue damage in any disease, and may be either secondary to tissue damage in AD or a marker of an immunological response.[71] Alterations in the distribution of different neurotrophic factors and in the expression of their receptors such as the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been described in AD.[72][73] Genetics The vast majority of cases of Alzheimer's disease are sporadic, meaning that they are not genetically inherited although some genes may act as risk factors. On the other hand, around 0.1% of the cases are familial forms of autosomal dominant (not sex-linked) inheritance, which usually have an onset before age 65.[74] This form of the disease is known as Early onset familial Alzheimer's disease. Most of autosomal dominant familial AD can be attributed to mutations in one of three genes: amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilins 1 and 2.[75] Most mutations in the APP and presenilin genes increase the production of a small protein called Aβ42, which is the main component of senile plaques.[76] Some of the mutations merely alter the ratio between Aβ42 and the other major forms—e.g., Aβ40—without increasing Aβ42 levels.[76][77] This suggests that presenilin mutations can cause disease even if they lower the total amount of Aβ produced and may point to other roles of presenilin or a role for alterations in the function of APP and/or its fragments other than Aβ. Most cases of Alzheimer's disease do not exhibit autosomal-dominant inheritance and are termed sporadic AD. Nevertheless genetic differences may act as risk factors. The best known genetic risk factor is the inheritance of the ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE).[78][79] Between 40 and 80% of people with AD possess at least one APOEε4 allele.[79] The APOEε4 allele increases the risk of the disease by three times in heterozygotes and by 15 times in homozygotes.[74] However, it must be noted that this "genetic" effect is not necessarily purely genetic. For example, certain Nigerian populations have no relationship between presence or dose of APOEε4 and incidence or age-of-onset for Alzheimer's disease.[80] [81] Geneticists agree that numerous other genes also act as risk factors or have protective effects that influence the development of late onset Alzheimer's disease,[75] but results such as the Nigerian studies and the incomplete penetrance for all genetic risk factors associated with sporadic Alzheimers indicate a strong role for environmental effects. Over 400 genes have been tested for association with late-onset sporadic AD,[75] most with null results.[74] Diagnosis PET scan of the brain of a person with AD showing a loss of function in the temporal lobe Alzheimer's disease is usually diagnosed clinically from the patient history, collateral history from relatives, and clinical observations, based on the presence of characteristic neurological and neuropsychological features and the absence of alternative conditions.[82][83] Advanced medical imaging with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) can be used to help exclude other cerebral pathology or subtypes of dementia.[84] Moreover, it may predict conversion from prodromal stages (mild cognitive impairment) to Alzheimer's disease.[85] Assessment of intellectual functioning including memory testing can further characterise the state of the disease.[5] Medical organisations have created diagnostic criteria to ease and standardise the diagnostic process for practicing physicians. The diagnosis can be confirmed with very high accuracy post-mortem when brain material is available and can be examined histologically.[86] Criteria The National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke (NINCDS) and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (ADRDA, now known as the Alzheimer's Association) established the most commonly used NINCDS-ADRDA Alzheimer's Criteria for diagnosis in 1984,[86] extensively updated in 2007.[87] These criteria require that the presence of cognitive impairment, and a suspected dementia syndrome, be confirmed by neuropsychological testing for a clinical diagnosis of possible or probable AD. A histopathologic confirmation including a microscopic examination of brain tissue is required for a definitive diagnosis. Good statistical reliability and validity have been shown between the diagnostic criteria and definitive histopathological confirmation.[88] Eight cognitive domains are most commonly impaired in AD—memory, language, perceptual skills, attention, constructive abilities, orientation, problem solving and functional abilities. These domains are equivalent to the NINCDS-ADRDA Alzheimer's Criteria as listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) published by the American Psychiatric Association.[89][90] Techniques Neuropsychological screening tests can help in the diagnosis of AD. In the tests, people are instructed to copy drawings similar to the one shown in the picture, remember words, read, and subtract serial numbers. Neuropsychological tests such as the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) are widely used to evaluate the cognitive impairments needed for diagnosis. More comprehensive test arrays are necessary for high reliability of results, particularly in the earliest stages of the disease.[91][92] Neurological examination in early AD will usually provide normal results, except for obvious cognitive impairment, which may not differ from that resulting from other diseases processes, including other causes of dementia. Further neurological examinations are crucial in the differential diagnosis of AD and other diseases.[5] Interviews with family members are also utilised in the assessment of the disease. Caregivers can supply important information on the daily living abilities, as well as on the decrease, over time, of the person's mental function.[85] A caregiver's viewpoint is particularly important, since a person with AD is commonly unaware of his own deficits.[93] Many times, families also have difficulties in the detection of initial dementia symptoms and may not communicate accurate information to a physician.[94] Another recent objective marker of the disease is the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid for amyloid beta or tau proteins,[95] both total tau protein and phosphorylated tau181P protein concentrations.[96] Searching for these proteins using a spinal tap can predict the onset of Alzheimer's with a sensitivity of between 94% and 100%.[96] When used in conjunction with existing neuroimaging techniques, doctors can identify people with significant memory loss who are already developing the disease.[96] Spinal fluid tests are commercially available, unlike the latest neuroimaging technology.[97] Alzheimer's was diagnosed in one-third of the people who did not have any symptoms in a 2010 study, meaning that disease progression occurs well before symptoms occur.[98] Supplemental testing provides extra information on some features of the disease or is used to rule out other diagnoses. Blood tests can identify other causes for dementia than AD[5]—causes which may, in rare cases, be reversible.[99] It is common to perform thyroid function tests, assess B12, rule out syphilis, rule out metabolic problems (including tests for kidney function, electrolyte levels and for diabetes), assess levels of heavy metals (e.g. lead, mercury) and anaemia. (See differential diagnosis for Dementia). (It is also necessary to rule out delirium). Psychological tests for depression are employed, since depression can either be concurrent with AD (see Depression of Alzheimer disease), an early sign of cognitive impairment,[100] or even the cause.[101][102] Imaging When available as a diagnostic tool, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging are used to confirm a diagnosis of Alzheimer's in conjunction with evaluations involving mental status examination.[103] In a person already having dementia, SPECT appears to be superior in differentiating Alzheimer's disease from other possible causes, compared with the usual attempts employing mental testing and medical history analysis.[104] Advances have led to the proposal of new diagnostic criteria.[5][87] A new technique known as PiB PET has been developed for directly and clearly imaging beta-amyloid deposits in vivo using a tracer that binds selectively to the A-beta deposits.[105] The PiB-PET compound uses carbon-11 PET scanning. Recent studies suggest that PiB-PET is 86% accurate in predicting which people with mild cognitive impairment will develop Alzheimer's disease within two years, and 92% accurate in ruling out the likelihood of developing Alzheimer's.[106] A similar PET scanning radiopharmaceutical compound called (E)-4-(2-(6-(2-(2-(2-([18F]-fluoroethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)pyridin-3-yl)vinyl)-N-methyl benzenamine, or 18F AV-45, or florbetapir-fluorine-18, or simply florbetapir, contains the longer-lasting radionuclide fluorine-18, has recently been created, and tested as a possible diagnostic tool in Alzheimer's disease.[107][108][109][110] Florbetapir, like PiB, binds to beta-amyloid, but due to its use of fluorine-18 has a half-life of 110 minutes, in contrast to PiB's radioactive half life of 20 minutes. Wong et al. found that the longer life allowed the tracer to accumulate significantly more in the brains of people with AD, particularly in the regions known to be associated with beta-amyloid deposits.[110] One review predicted that amyloid imaging is likely to be used in conjunction with other markers rather than as an alternative.[111] Volumetric MRI can detect changes in the size of brain regions. Measuring those regions that atrophy during the progress of Alzheimer's disease is showing promise as a diagnostic indicator. It may prove less expensive than other imaging methods currently under study.[112] Non-Imaging biomarkers Recent studies have shown that people with AD had decreased glutamate (Glu) as well as decreased Glu/creatine (Cr), Glu/myo-inositol (mI), Glu/N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and NAA/Cr ratios compared to normal people. Both decreased NAA/Cr and decreased hippocampal glutamate may be an early indicator of AD.[113] Early research in mouse models may have identified markers for AD. The applicability of these markers is unknown.[114] A small human study in 2011 found that monitoring blood dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) variations in response to an oxidative stress could be a useful proxy test: the subjects with MCI did not have a DHEA variation, while the healthy controls did.[115] Prevention Intellectual activities such as playing chess or regular social interaction have been linked to a reduced risk of AD in epidemiological studies, although no causal relationship has been found. At present, there is no definitive evidence to support that any particular measure is effective in preventing AD.[116] Global studies of measures to prevent or delay the onset of AD have often produced inconsistent results. However, epidemiological studies have proposed relationships between certain modifiable factors, such as diet, cardiovascular risk, pharmaceutical products, or intellectual activities among others, and a population's likelihood of developing AD. Only further research, including clinical trials, will reveal whether these factors can help to prevent AD.[117] Although cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension, diabetes, and smoking, are associated with a higher risk of onset and course of AD,[118][119] statins, which are cholesterol lowering drugs, have not been effective in preventing or improving the course of the disease.[120][121] The components of a Mediterranean diet, which include fruit and vegetables, bread, wheat and other cereals, olive oil, fish, and red wine, may all individually or together reduce the risk and course of Alzheimer's disease.[122] The diet's beneficial cardiovascular effect has been proposed as the mechanism of action.[122] There is limited evidence that light to moderate use of alcohol, particularly red wine, is associated with lower risk of AD.[123] Reviews on the use of vitamins have not found enough evidence of efficacy to recommend vitamin C,[124] E,[124][125] or folic acid with or without vitamin B12,[126] as preventive or treatment agents in AD. Additionally vitamin E is associated with important health risks.[124] Trials examining folic acid (B9) and other B vitamins failed to show any significant association with cognitive decline.[127] Docosahexaenoic acid, an Omega 3 fatty acid, has not been found to slow decline.[128] Long-term usage of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) is associated with a reduced likelihood of developing AD.[129] Human postmortem studies, in animal models, or in vitro investigations also support the notion that NSAIDs can reduce inflammation related to amyloid plaques.[129] However trials investigating their use as palliative treatment have failed to show positive results while no prevention trial has been completed.[129] Curcumin from the curry spice turmeric has shown some effectiveness in preventing brain damage in mouse models due to its anti-inflammatory properties.[130][131] Hormone replacement therapy, although previously used, is no longer thought to prevent dementia and in some cases may even be related to it.[132][133] There is inconsistent and unconvincing evidence that ginkgo has any positive effect on cognitive impairment and dementia,[134] and a recent study concludes that it has no effect in reducing the rate of AD incidence.[135] A 21-year study found that coffee drinkers of 3–5 cups per day at midlife had a 65% reduction in risk of dementia in late-life.[136] People who engage in intellectual activities such as reading, playing board games, completing crossword puzzles, playing musical instruments, or regular social interaction show a reduced risk for Alzheimer's disease.[137] This is compatible with the cognitive reserve theory, which states that some life experiences result in more efficient neural functioning providing the individual a cognitive reserve that delays the onset of dementia manifestations.[137] Education delays the onset of AD syndrome, but is not related to earlier death after diagnosis.[138] Learning a second language even later in life seems to delay getting Alzheimer disease.[139] Physical activity is also associated with a reduced risk of AD.[138] Two studies have shown that medical marijuana may be effective in inhibiting the progress of AD. The active ingredient in marijuana, THC, may prevent the formation of deposits in the brain associated with Alzheimer's disease. THC was found to inhibit acetylcholinesterase more effectively than commercially marketed drugs.[140][141] A recent review of the clinical research has found no evidence that cannabinoids are effective in the improvement of disturbed behaviour or in the treatment of other symptoms of AD or dementia.[142] Some studies have shown an increased risk of developing AD with environmental factors such the intake of metals, particularly aluminium,[143][144] or exposure to solvents.[145] The quality of some of these studies has been criticised,[146] and other studies have concluded that there is no relationship between these environmental factors and the development of AD.[147][148][149][150] While some studies suggest that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields may increase the risk for Alzheimer's disease, reviewers found that further epidemiological and laboratory investigations of this hypothesis are needed.[151] Smoking is a significant AD risk factor.[152] Systemic markers of the innate immune system are risk factors for late-onset AD.[153] Management There is no cure for Alzheimer's disease; available treatments offer relatively small symptomatic benefit but remain palliative in nature. Current treatments can be divided into pharmaceutical, psychosocial and caregiving. Pharmaceutical Three-dimensional molecular model of donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of AD symptoms Molecular structure of memantine, a medication approved for advanced AD symptoms Five medications are currently used to treat the cognitive manifestations of AD: four are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (tacrine, rivastigmine, galantamine and donepezil) and the other (memantine) is an NMDA receptor antagonist. [154] No drug has an indication for delaying or halting the progression of the disease. Reduction in the activity of the cholinergic neurons is a well-known feature of Alzheimer's disease.[155] Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are employed to reduce the rate at which acetylcholine (ACh) is broken down, thereby increasing the concentration of ACh in the brain and combating the loss of ACh caused by the death of cholinergic neurons.[156] Cholinesterase inhibitors approved for the management of AD symptoms are donepezil (brand name Aricept),[157] galantamine (Razadyne),[158] and rivastigmine (branded as Exelon[159]). There is evidence for the efficacy of these medications in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease,[160][161] and some evidence for their use in the advanced stage. Only donepezil is approved for treatment of advanced AD dementia.[162] The use of these drugs in mild cognitive impairment has not shown any effect in a delay of the onset of AD.[163] The most common side effects are nausea and vomiting, both of which are linked to cholinergic excess. These side effects arise in approximately 10–20% of users and are mild to moderate in severity. Less common secondary effects include muscle cramps, decreased heart rate (bradycardia), decreased appetite and weight, and increased gastric acid production.[164] Glutamate is a useful excitatory neurotransmitter of the nervous system, although excessive amounts in the brain can lead to cell death through a process called excitotoxicity which consists of the overstimulation of glutamate receptors. Excitotoxicity occurs not only in Alzheimer's disease, but also in other neurological diseases such as Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis.[165] Memantine (brand names Akatinol)[166] is a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist first used as an anti-influenza agent. It acts on the glutamatergic system by blocking NMDA receptors and inhibiting their overstimulation by glutamate.[165] Memantine has been shown to be moderately efficacious in the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease. Its effects in the initial stages of AD are unknown.[167] Reported adverse events with memantine are infrequent and mild, including hallucinations, confusion, dizziness, headache and fatigue.[168] The combination of memantine and donepezil has been shown to be "of statistically significant but clinically marginal effectiveness".[169] Antipsychotic drugs are modestly useful in reducing aggression and psychosis in Alzheimer's disease with behavioural problems, but are associated with serious adverse effects, such as cerebrovascular events, movement difficulties or cognitive decline, that do not permit their routine use.[170][171] When used in the long-term, they have been shown to associate with increased mortality.[171] Huperzine A while promising, requires further evidence before it use can be recommended.[172] Psychosocial intervention A specifically designed room for sensory integration therapy, also called snoezelen; an emotion-oriented psychosocial intervention for people with dementia Psychosocial interventions are used as an adjunct to pharmaceutical treatment and can be classified within behaviour-, emotion-, cognition- or stimulation-oriented approaches. Research on efficacy is unavailable and rarely specific to AD, focusing instead on dementia in general.[173] Behavioural interventions attempt to identify and reduce the antecedents and consequences of problem behaviours. This approach has not shown success in improving overall functioning,[174] but can help to reduce some specific problem behaviours, such as incontinence.[175] There is a lack of high quality data on the effectiveness of these techniques in other behaviour problems such as wandering.[176][177] Emotion-oriented interventions include reminiscence therapy, validation therapy, supportive psychotherapy, sensory integration, also called snoezelen, and simulated presence therapy. Supportive psychotherapy has received little or no formal scientific study, but some clinicians find it useful in helping mildly impaired people adjust to their illness.[173] Reminiscence therapy (RT) involves the discussion of past experiences individually or in group, many times with the aid of photographs, household items, music and sound recordings, or other familiar items from the past. Although there are few quality studies on the effectiveness of RT, it may be beneficial for cognition and mood.[178] Simulated presence therapy (SPT) is based on attachment theories and involves playing a recording with voices of the closest relatives of the person with Alzheimer's disease. There is partial evidence indicating that SPT may reduce challenging behaviours.[179] Finally, validation therapy is based on acceptance of the reality and personal truth of another's experience, while sensory integration is based on exercises aimed to stimulate senses. There is little evidence to support the usefulness of these therapies.[180][181] The aim of cognition-oriented treatments, which include reality orientation and cognitive retraining, is the reduction of cognitive deficits. Reality orientation consists in the presentation of information about time, place or person in order to ease the understanding of the person about its surroundings and his or her place in them. On the other hand cognitive retraining tries to improve impaired capacities by exercitation of mental abilities. Both have shown some efficacy improving cognitive capacities,[182][183] although in some studies these effects were transient and negative effects, such as frustration, have also been reported.[173] Stimulation-oriented treatments include art, music and pet therapies, exercise, and any other kind of recreational activities. Stimulation has modest support for improving behaviour, mood, and, to a lesser extent, function. Nevertheless, as important as these effects are, the main support for the use of stimulation therapies is the change in the person's routine.[173] Caregiving Further information: Caregiving and dementia Since Alzheimer's has no cure and it gradually renders people incapable of tending for their own needs, caregiving essentially is the treatment and must be carefully managed over the course of the disease. During the early and moderate stages, modifications to the living environment and lifestyle can increase patient safety and reduce caretaker burden.[184][185] Examples of such modifications are the adherence to simplified routines, the placing of safety locks, the labelling of household items to cue the person with the disease or the use of modified daily life objects.[173][186][187] The patient may also become incapable of feeding themselves, so they require food in smaller pieces or pureed.[188] When swallowing difficulties arise, the use of feeding tubes may be required. In such cases, the medical efficacy and ethics of continuing feeding is an important consideration of the caregivers and family members.[189][190] The use of physical restraints is rarely indicated in any stage of the disease, although there are situations when they are necessary to prevent harm to the person with AD or their caregivers.[173] As the disease progresses, different medical issues can appear, such as oral and dental disease, pressure ulcers, malnutrition, hygiene problems, or respiratory, skin, or eye infections. Careful management can prevent them, while professional treatment is needed when they do arise.[191][192] During the final stages of the disease, treatment is centred on relieving discomfort until death.[193] A small recent study in the US concluded that people whose caregivers had a realistic understanding of the prognosis and clinical complications of late dementia were less likely to receive aggressive treatment near the end of life. [194] Feeding tubes There is strong evidence that feeding tubes do not help people with advanced Alzheimer's dementia gain weight, regain strength or function, prevent aspiration pneumonias, or improve quality of life.[195][196][197][198] Prognosis Disability-adjusted life year for Alzheimer and other dementias per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004. no data ≤ 50 50–70 70–90 90–110 110–130 130–150 150–170 170–190 190–210 210–230 230–250 ≥ 250 The early stages of Alzheimer's disease are difficult to diagnose. A definitive diagnosis is usually made once cognitive impairment compromises daily living activities, although the person may still be living independently. The symptoms will progress from mild cognitive problems, such as memory loss through increasing stages of cognitive and non-cognitive disturbances, eliminating any possibility of independent living, especially in the late stages of the disease.[25] Life expectancy of the population with the disease is reduced.[9][199][200] The mean life expectancy following diagnosis is approximately seven years.[9] Fewer than 3% of people live more than fourteen years.[10] Disease features significantly associated with reduced survival are an increased severity of cognitive impairment, decreased functional level, history of falls, and disturbances in the neurological examination. Other coincident diseases such as heart problems, diabetes or history of alcohol abuse are also related with shortened survival.[199][201][202] While the earlier the age at onset the higher the total survival years, life expectancy is particularly reduced when compared to the healthy population among those who are younger.[200] Men have a less favourable survival prognosis than women.[10][203] The disease is the underlying cause of death in 70% of all cases.[9] Pneumonia and dehydration are the most frequent immediate causes of death, while cancer is a less frequent cause of death than in the general population.[9][203] Epidemiology Incidence rates after age 65[204] Age New affected per thousand person–years 65–69 3 70–74 6 75–79 9 80–84 23 85–89 40 90– 69 Two main measures are used in epidemiological studies: incidence and prevalence. Incidence is the number of new cases per unit of person–time at risk (usually number of new cases per thousand person–years); while prevalence is the total number of cases of the disease in the population at any given time. Regarding incidence, cohort longitudinal studies (studies where a disease-free population is followed over the years) provide rates between 10 and 15 per thousand person–years for all dementias and 5–8 for AD,[204][205] which means that half of new dementia cases each year are AD. Advancing age is a primary risk factor for the disease and incidence rates are not equal for all ages: every five years after the age of 65, the risk of acquiring the disease approximately doubles, increasing from 3 to as much as 69 per thousand person years.[204][205] There are also sex differences in the incidence rates, women having a higher risk of developing AD particularly in the population older than 85.[205][206] Prevalence of AD in populations is dependent upon different factors including incidence and survival. Since the incidence of AD increases with age, it is particularly important to include the mean age of the population of interest. In the United States, Alzheimer prevalence was estimated to be 1.6% in 2000 both overall and in the 65–74 age group, with the rate increasing to 19% in the 75–84 group and to 42% in the greater than 84 group.[207] Prevalence rates in less developed regions are lower.[208] The World Health Organization estimated that in 2005, 0.379% of people worldwide had dementia, and that the prevalence would increase to 0.441% in 2015 and to 0.556% in 2030.[209] Other studies have reached similar conclusions.[208] Another study estimated that in 2006, 0.40% of the world population (range 0.17–0.89%; absolute number 26.6 million, range 11.4–59.4 million) were afflicted by AD, and that the prevalence rate would triple and the absolute number would quadruple by 2050.[3] History Alois Alzheimer's patient Auguste Deter in 1902. Hers was the first described case of what became known as Alzheimer's disease. The ancient Greek and Roman philosophers and physicians associated old age with increasing dementia.[1] It was not until 1901 that German psychiatrist Alois Alzheimer identified the first case of what became known as Alzheimer's disease in a fifty-year-old woman he called Auguste D. He followed her case until she died in 1906, when he first reported publicly on it.[210] During the next five years, eleven similar cases were reported in the medical literature, some of them already using the term Alzheimer's disease.[1] The disease was first described as a distinctive disease by Emil Kraepelin after suppressing some of the clinical (delusions and hallucinations) and pathological features (arteriosclerotic changes) contained in the original report of Auguste D.[211] He included Alzheimer's disease, also named presenile dementia by Kraepelin, as a subtype of senile dementia in the eighth edition of his Textbook of Psychiatry, published on July 15, 1910.[212] For most of the 20th century, the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease was reserved for individuals between the ages of 45 and 65 who developed symptoms of dementia. The terminology changed after 1977 when a conference on AD concluded that the clinical and pathological manifestations of presenile and senile dementia were almost identical, although the authors also added that this did not rule out the possibility that they had different causes.[213] This eventually led to the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease independently of age.[214] The term senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) was used for a time to describe the condition in those over 65, with classical Alzheimer's disease being used for those younger. Eventually, the term Alzheimer's disease was formally adopted in medical nomenclature to describe individuals of all ages with a characteristic common symptom pattern, disease course, and neuropathology.[215] Society and culture Social costs Dementia, and specifically Alzheimer's disease, may be among the most costly diseases for society in Europe and the United States,[18][19] while their cost in other countries such as Argentina,[216] or South Korea,[217] is also high and rising. These costs will probably increase with the ageing of society, becoming an important social problem. AD-associated costs include direct medical costs such as nursing home care, direct nonmedical costs such as in-home day care, and indirect costs such as lost productivity of both patient and caregiver.[19] Numbers vary between studies but dementia costs worldwide have been calculated around $160 billion,[218] while costs of Alzheimer in the United States may be $100 billion each year.[19] The greatest origin of costs for society is the long-term care by health care professionals and particularly institutionalisation, which corresponds to 2/3 of the total costs for society.[18] The cost of living at home is also very high,[18] especially when informal costs for the family, such as caregiving time and caregiver's lost earnings, are taken into account.[219] Costs increase with dementia severity and the presence of behavioural disturbances,[220] and are related to the increased caregiving time required for the provision of physical care.[219] Therefore any treatment that slows cognitive decline, delays institutionalisation or reduces caregivers' hours will have economic benefits. Economic evaluations of current treatments have shown positive results.[19] Caregiving burden Further information: Caregiving and dementia The role of the main caregiver is often taken by the spouse or a close relative.[14] Alzheimer's disease is known for placing a great burden on caregivers which includes social, psychological, physical or economic aspects.[15][16][17] Home care is usually preferred by people with AD and their families.[221] This option also delays or eliminates the need for more professional and costly levels of care.[221][222] Nevertheless two-thirds of nursing home residents have dementias.[173] Dementia caregivers are subject to high rates of physical and mental disorders.[223] Factors associated with greater psychosocial problems of the primary caregivers include having an affected person at home, the carer being a spouse, demanding behaviours of the cared person such as depression, behavioural disturbances, hallucinations, sleep problems or walking disruptions and social isolation.[224][225] Regarding economic problems, family caregivers often give up time from work to spend 47 hours per week on average with the person with AD, while the costs of caring for them are high. Direct and indirect costs of caring for an Alzheimer's patient average between $18,000 and $77,500 per year in the United States, depending on the study.[14][219] Cognitive behavioural therapy and the teaching of coping strategies either individually or in group have demonstrated their efficacy in improving caregivers' psychological health.[15][226] Notable cases Further information: Alzheimer's in the media Charlton Heston and Ronald Reagan at a meeting in the White House. Both of them would later be diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. As Alzheimer's disease is highly prevalent, many notable people have developed it. Well-known examples are former United States President Ronald Reagan and Irish writer Iris Murdoch, both of whom were the subjects of scientific articles examining how their cognitive capacities deteriorated with the disease.[227][228][229] Other cases include the retired footballer Ferenc Puskas,[230] the former Prime Ministers Harold Wilson (United Kingdom) and Adolfo Suárez (Spain),[231][232] the actress Rita Hayworth,[233] the actor Charlton Heston,[234] the novelist Terry Pratchett,[235] Indian politician George Fernandes,[236] and the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics recipient Charles K. Kao.[237] AD has also been portrayed in films such as: Iris (2001), based on John Bayley's memoir of his wife Iris Murdoch;[238] The Notebook (2004), based on Nicholas Sparks' 1996 novel of the same name;[239] A Moment to Remember (2004);Thanmathra (2005);[240] Memories of Tomorrow (Ashita no Kioku) (2006), based on Hiroshi Ogiwara's novel of the same name;[241] Away from Her (2006), based on Alice Munro's short story "The Bear Came over the Mountain".[242] Documentaries on Alzheimer's disease include Malcolm and Barbara: A Love Story (1999) and Malcolm and Barbara: Love's Farewell (2007), both featuring Malcolm Pointon.[243] Research directions Main article: Alzheimer's disease clinical research As of 2012, the safety and efficacy of more than 400 pharmaceutical treatments had been or were being investigated in 1012 clinical trials worldwide, and approximately a quarter of these compounds are in Phase III trials, the last step prior to review by regulatory agencies.[12] One area of clinical research is focused on treating the underlying disease pathology. Reduction of amyloid beta levels is a common target of compounds[244] (such as apomorphine) under investigation. Immunotherapy or vaccination for the amyloid protein is one treatment modality under study.[245] Unlike preventative vaccination, the putative therapy would be used to treat people already diagnosed. It is based upon the concept of training the immune system to recognise, attack, and reverse deposition of amyloid, thereby altering the course of the disease.[246] An example of such a vaccine under investigation was ACC-001,[247][248] although the trials were suspended in 2008.[249] Another similar agent is bapineuzumab, an antibody designed as identical to the naturally induced anti-amyloid antibody.[250] Other approaches are neuroprotective agents, such as AL-108,[251] and metal-protein interaction attenuation agents, such as PBT2.[252] A TNFα receptor fusion protein, etanercept has showed encouraging results.[253] In 2008, two separate clinical trials showed positive results in modifying the course of disease in mild to moderate AD with methylthioninium chloride (trade name rember), a drug that inhibits tau aggregation,[254][255] and dimebon, an antihistamine.[256] The consecutive Phase-III trial of Dimebon failed to show positive effects in the primary and secondary endpoints.[257] The possibility that AD could be treated with antiviral medication is suggested by a study showing colocation of herpes simplex virus with amyloid plaques.[258] Preliminary research on the effects of meditation on retrieving memory and cognitive functions have been encouraging. Limitations of this research can be addressed in future studies with more detailed analyses.[259] An FDA panel voted unanimously to recommend approval of florbetapir (tradename: Amyvid), which is currently used in an investigational study. The agent can detect Alzheimer's brain plaques, but will require additional clinical research before it can be made available commercially. *WATCH THE VIDEO HERE: SIX YEAR ITCH by Jon Hammond in Louisville Kentucky http://archive.org/details/SixYearItchByJonHammond Youtube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TaCYavcSZs8 Jon Hammond original composition "Six Year Itch" from Jon's album "Hammond's Bolero" - here in Louisville Kentucky at soundcheck with Ronnie Smith Jr. drums Alex Budman tenor saxophone John Bishop guitar Jon Hammond organ http://www.jonhammondband.com JH INTL ASCAP Jon Hammond - organ Ronnie Smith Jr. drums Alex Budman tenor sax John Bishop guitar Vimeo http://vimeo.com/46233394

SIX YEAR ITCH by Jon Hammond from Jon Hammond on Vimeo.

Jon Hammond Journal July 22, 2012 Report San Francisco Skyline at dusk as seen from San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge - Jon Hammond http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_francisco_skyline The U.S. city of San Francisco, California, is the site of over 410 high-rises, 44 of which stand taller than 400 feet (122 m). The tallest building in the city is the Transamerica Pyramid, which rises 853 ft (260 m) and is currently the 31st-tallest building in the United States. Another famous San Francisco skyscraper is 555 California Street, which is the city's second tallest building. It is also known as Bank of America Center. Many of San Francisco's tallest buildings, particularly its office skyscrapers, were completed in a massive building boom that occurred from the late 1960s until the late 1980s. This boom was dubbed a "Manhattanization wave" by residents of the city, and led to local legislation passed that set in some of the strictest building height limit requirements in the country. This led to a slowdown of skyscraper construction during the 1990s, but construction of taller buildings has resumed recently as the building height requirements have been relaxed and overlooked in light of recent economic activity. The city is currently going through a second boom, with 34 buildings over 400 feet (122 m) proposed, approved, or under construction in the city. San Francisco boasts 21 skyscrapers that rise at least 492 feet (150 m) in height. Overall, San Francisco's skyline is ranked (based upon existing and under construction buildings over 492 feet (150 m) tall) second in the Pacific coast region (after Los Angeles) and seventh in the United States, after New York City, Chicago, Miami, Los Angeles, Houston, and Dallas.[A] Due to a housing shortage and the subsequent real estate boom, the city's strict building height code has been relaxed over the years, and there have been many skyscrapers proposed for construction in the city; some, such as the One Rincon Hill South Tower, have already been completed. Several other taller buildings are proposed in connection with the Transbay Terminal redevelopment project. The San Francisco Transbay development consists of 10 skyscrapers set to rise over 400 feet (122 m) tall, with three of the towers scheduled to rise over 1,000 feet (305 m). If constructed, these towers would be the first buildings in San Francisco to qualify as supertalls, and would be among the tallest in the United States. Many other tall proposals have been submitted as well, including the Sun Tower, which is planned to rise on Treasure Island — at Skyline San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge -- Slow down 35 MPH for the curve people! Not 50 or 60 like lots are doing - Jon Hammond Dead Man's Curve http://www.sfgate.com/bayarea/article/Ideas-offered-to-slow-S-curve-motorists-3211750.php Getting drivers to slow down for the Bay Bridge S-curve might seem like an unusual challenge, but some states have been dealing with troublesome curves on interstate highways for decades, using everything from speed cameras and flashing lights to grooved pavement and unusual lane markings to get drivers to slow down and pay attention. Some of these tactics will be used on the S-curve after a series of accidents, including a fatality Monday morning, sparked a public outcry for safety improvements at the temporary detour on the Bay Bridge. At least 43 accidents - or an average of five per week - have occurred on the curve since the detour opened to traffic Sept. 8. "People just don't want to slow down," said Russ Rader, a spokesman for the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, which researches traffic safety. "The question is: How do you make them?" Many cities have dangerous curves on highways that have earned infamy and nicknames because of the large number of accidents. In Cleveland, the 90-degree curve on Interstate 90 nearing downtown is called "Deadman's Curve." Opened in 1959, the curve quickly became a problem. Like the Bay Bridge, the speed limits on either side of the curve are 50 mph - which drivers usually exceed, said Jocelynn Clemings, a spokeswoman for the Ohio Department of Transportation. The sharp turn requires drivers to slow to 35 mph. To get drivers to reduce their speeds, the department has, over the years, put in "a lot of flashing signage" along with grooved pavement that makes a loud vibrating sound when drivers pass over it, and extra arrows, or chevrons, on the pavement. While drivers are more aware, she said, "There are quite often accidents of varying severity," and the Department of Transportation plans to "flatten" the curve sometime in the next decade, she said. Kansas City has two troublesome curves that it has tamed with speed sensors and flashing lights that warn drivers on Interstate 70 to slow down. Trucks frequently overturned at the Jackson and Benton curves, prompting the Missouri Department of Transportation to install a special warning system about 20 years ago. The system uses a sensor planted in each lane to read the speed of vehicles approaching the curves. If they're speeding, flashing lights over their lane activate and a sign blares: "Driving too fast when lights flashing." "We've had a pretty noticeable reduction in accidents," said Jesse Skinner, an interstate corridor engineer with the Missouri Department of Transportation. Elsewhere, the department also has used radar signs - one for each lane of traffic - that read and display drivers' speeds next to signs showing the speed limit. "People drive what (speed) they feel comfortable driving," Skinner said. "If you want them to slow down, you have to get their attention." Caltrans also employed flashing lights and prominent signs to do just that at "the Fishhook," the sharply curved intersection of highways 1 and 17 in Santa Cruz, and the curve was widened recently to make it easier to navigate. Colin Jones, a Caltrans spokesman, said the devices improved safety at the interchange but noted that drivers changing highways are more likely to slow down than those driving across a bridge and entering a curve. Anne McCartt, vice president of research at the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, said the key to slowing drivers is enforcement of speed laws. Speed cameras, which use radar to measure speed and then automatically issue a ticket, can be especially effective in an area like the S-curve, or where it could be difficult for police to pull over speeders. "The advantage of automated enforcement is that it can happen anytime of the day or night, wherever it is needed," she said. McCartt also recommended stricter enforcement of speeds on the entire bridge, saying that it is unrealistic to expect drivers to slow from speeds in excess of 50 mph to 35 mph for the curve. Caltrans officials already have installed extra signs and flashing lights, and plan more safety improvements to slow motorists, including reflective striping near the top of the bridge's barrier walls, a large overhead sign warning of the curve and of the reduced speed on the upper deck of the bridge, and radar boards flashing drivers' speeds. Caltrans spokesman Bart Ney said the agency also is considering installing grooved pavement or rows of pavement markers to warn drivers they are approaching the curve. Sorry William, you missed the McIntosh model 225, better luck next time! - Jon Hammond MC225 - *Random Reviews: "Bottom Line: The 225 matches excelently to My Klipsch Belle's and My Klipschorns. The 104 db/watt efficiency of these systems is a must for an amplifier of this size. 118 db peak passages are possible without clipping - a must for any realistic reproduction of music. Try to get 118 db peaks from any of the low efficiency speakers ( less than 100 db/watt ) and you end up with an impossible situation. The 225's have fixed bias, this should be critically set as I have found that amplifier signatures change with as little as 5ma. differences. The Sovetek 7591A's (not XYZ) are better sounding tubes than the NOS stuff being sold." "Over many years of experimenting with many products -solid state vs tubes I much prefer the tube sound. I recently purchased a 30 year old MAC 225 Amp and was amazed at the quality of the sound.My then current Cary SLA70 did not compare. I was hearing things I had never heard before on some favorite CD's with the MAC 225.Can I realistically improve the sound of my system by moving up to a MAC 240 or 275? Replies are appreciated. Also to maintain the MAC 225 sound signature should I continue with my Audible Illusions MOD 3 Pre amp(Tube) or move to a Mac 33 pre amp (Solid State). Any comments,suggestions or recommendations are appreciated." "I have been using MC-225 for more than 5 years and that is the part I think I will use it for my whole life (I guess my next generation can still use them by replacing some parts). It gave you great and smooth sound especially in the mid to high range. Very impressive for playing songs by female singer. Don't think that 25 watts is small, it can still gives you very solid bass and sound stage. Currently I have two sets of MC-225 to drive ProAC Tabelette 50 Sig. Other components include:" Radio Day By The Bay -- Jon Hammond with Celeste Perry Radio/TV Personality and another lady of Radio/TV - annual Fund Raiser for California Historical Radio Society at KRE Radio in Berkeley California Radio Day By The Bay -- Cheryl Jennings and Stan Bunger annual Fund Raiser for California Historical Radio Society at KRE Radio in Berkeley California - Jon Hammond Radio Day By The Bay -- He's got 'The Fever'...Radio Fever! Jon Hammond Radio Day By The Bay -- A lucky buyer got this beautiful classic radio for only 50 bucks at the annual Fund Raiser for California Historical Radio Society at KRE Radio in Berkeley California - Jon Hammond Jon Hammond's new little SONY TFM-6060W 2 Band Radio will be going on a trip around the world - Travel Radio just got acquired by a traveler! - Radio Day By The Bay - KRE Radio Berkeley California annual fundraiser for California Historical Radio Society Classic Motorola AM Radio in Turquoise Blue- this one went for big bucks at the Auction at annual fundraiser for California Historical Radio Society - RADIO KRE Berkeley - Jon Hammond Cheryl Jennings of KGO-TV conducting Oral History Interviews in control room of KRE Radio -- at Radio Day By The Bay annual fundraiser for California Historical Radio Society - Jon Hammond NAMM Oral History Session Jon Hammond recorded January 13th 2011 Anaheim CA

Jon Hammond | NAMM.org Oral History Interview Date: January 13, 2011 Full Version

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Jon Hammond | NAMM.org Oral History Interview Date: January 13, 2011


Jon Hammond
Interview Date: January 13, 2011
Job Title: President and Founder
Company: Jon Hammond & Associates

Jon Hammond

Jon Hammond has successfully created a career based on his musical talents and his passion for the music industry! As a musician Jon has performed with many legendary players and as a clinician and product artist he has introduced many innovative products to music stores and their customers over the last 30 plus years. Jon is closely identified with the two main products of his career, the Excelsior Accordion and the Digital B3 Organ.

Jon Hammond

John Entwistle, NAMM Show, Frankfurt Musikmesse, Sk1 Organ, Jon Hammond, Jazz, Blues, Local 802, Musicians Union, Fender Vintage Modified, Late Rent

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